In charge of making sure the country has enough energy, from gas for our cars to oil for heating our homes. Some of its agencies:
- FERC: The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
- DOE also manages nuclear testing facilities.
- Spencer Abraham served as Energy Secretary in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2005)
- Bill Richardson served as Bill Clinton's Energy Secretary from 1998-2000.
The "Terrorism Czar" was first a Cabinet-level position, and then made a Cabinet department.
- Coordinates a comprehensive national strategy to safeguard our country against terrorism, and responds to any attacks that may come.
- The office was created on Sept. 20 2001 by Pres. Bush in response to the World Trade Center attack.
- The Terrorism Czar Richard Clarke was not Ridge's predecessor -- Clarke's title was National Coordinator for Security and Counter-Terrorism and he served under Condoleezza Rice on the National Security Council. Clarke wrote the 2004 book Against All Enemies.
- Tom Ridge served as Secretary of the Office Homeland Security in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2004)
Responsible for ensuring fair wages, a safe workplace and equal opportunity.
- BLS: The Bureau of Labor Statistics keeps track of the state of the American workforce, including the unemployment rate.
- OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
- Robert Reich served as Bill Clinton's Labor Secretary from 1993-1997.
The Justice Department is in charge of investigating crimes and enforcing federal law, including civil rights laws that guarantee Americans equal opportunity regardless of race. Its agencies include:
- DEA: The Drug Enforcement Agency
- FBI: The Federal Bureau of Investigation
- INS: The Immigration and Naturalization Service
- John Ashcroft served as Attorney General in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2004)
- Janet Reno served as Bill Clinton's Attorney General from 1993-2000.
Commerce tries to make sure businesses and industries run well and can sell things overseas. Some of its agencies:
- Census2000: The department also runs the Census Bureau.
- NOAA: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
- NWS: The National Weather Service (part of NOAA).
- USPTO: The Patent and Trademark Office.
- Donald Evans served as Commerce Secretary in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2004)
HUD tries to make sure there are enough homes for people who donít have a lot of money. It also helps enforce equal-opportunity housing laws, so that people wonít be discriminated against when they try to move into a new neighborhood.
- Mel Martinez served as Secretary of H.U.D. in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2004)
- Andrew Cuomo served as Bill Clinton's HUD Secretary from 1997-2000.
The Department of Agriculture, or USDA, monitors the safety and quality of meat, eggs and poultry.
- USFS: The U.S. Forest Service is run by USDA, because forests were then considered primarily an agricutltural resource.
- NRCS: Natural Resource Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service).
- USDA also runs the food stamp program and the national school lunch program.
- Ann Veneman served as Secretary of Agriculture in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2004)
The EPA is technically not in the Cabinet, but is a "Cabinet-level agency." EPA is responsible for promulgating and enforcing environmental regulations.
- Mike Leavitt served as Director of EPA in Pres. Bush's first term (2003-2005); he is now Secretary of H.H.S.
- Christie Whitman served as Director of EPA in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2003)
Protects the health and well-being of Americans. HHS is in charge of Medicare (which provides health insurance to older and disabled Americans) and Medicaid (which helps provide insurance to low-income citizens). Its other agencies include:
- FDA: The Food and Drug Administration
- NIH: National Institutes of Health.
- CDC: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- AFDC: Aid to Families with Dependent Children (the welfare program).
- Tommy Thompson served as Secretary of H.H.S. in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2005)
DOT keeps an eye on the airlines, patrols the waterways, helps build and maintain highways, and regulates motor vehicles and promotes traffic safety.
- FAA: Oversees the Federal Avaiation Administration, resposible for air traffic.
- The Interstate Highway System is built and maintained by DOT.
- Norman Mineta also served as Bill Clinton's Transportation Secretary from 2000-2001.
The VA now manages hospitals for veterans and gives support to Americaís 25 million veterans and their families.
- Anthony Principi served as Secretary of the V.A. in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2005)
Responsible for protecting the nationís natural landscape, and making sure people and companies have the proper access to it. It also handles:
- NPS: The National Park Services, which operates parks, rivers, & monuments.
- BLM: The Bureau of Land Management, which overseas federally-owned land.
- USGS: The U.S. Geological Survey, which is a science agency for mapping and data collection.
- BIA: The Bureau of Indian Affairs, which deals with all Native American issues.
Handles foreign policy and sends out foreign service officers.
- Runs U.S. embassies, to assist U.S. travelers abroad.
- Also runs USIA, the US Information Agency, to disseminate information abroad.
- Colin Powell served as Secretary of State in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2005)
Defends the nation and, sometimes, the things it cares about in other countries. The Defense Department is headquartered in the Pentagon and is in charge of the U.S. Armed Forces.
- JCS: Joint Chiefs of Staff from the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps.
- DARPA: The agency that initiated the Internet.
- Dick Cheney served as George Bush Sr.'s Defense Secretary from 1989-1993.
- Sen. William Cohen (R, ME) served as Bill Clinton's Defense Secretary from 1997-2001.
- Donald Rumsfeld also served as Gerald Ford's Defense Secretary from 1975-1977.
The Treasury Department prints U.S. currency and collects it at tax time. Some Treasury agencies:
- IRS: The Internal Revenue Service.
- Customs Service: controlling incoming people and goods.
- The Mint: where currency, coins, and stamps are produced.
- The Secret Service which protects the President and other officials.
- ATF: The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms.
- Paul O'Neill served as Secretary of the Treasury in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2003)
Distributes federal money for college loans and scholarships, and funds programs to improve the education of grade school and high school kids, especially those from low-income families.
- Rod Paige served as Secretary of Education in Pres. Bush's first term (2001-2004)
- Lamar Alexander served as George Bush Sr.'s Education Secretary from 1991-1993.
Numerous federal agencies are not directly supervised by any Cabinet department. These include:
- ACE: Army Corps of Engineers (2001 budget: $4.5 billion)
- CIA: Central Intelligence Agency (1998 budget: $26.7 billion)
- CBO: Congressional Budget Office
- EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
- FCC: Federal Communications Commission
- FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Commission
- FEC: Federal Election Commission
- FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency (2001 budget: $2.4 billion)
- Federal Reserve: The agency headed by Alan Greenspan which sets interest rates.
- FDA: Food and Drug Administration
- LSC: Legal Services Corporation (2001 budget: $0.3 billion)
- NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2001 budget: $14.3 billion)
- NEA: National Endowment for the Arts (2001 budget: $0.1 billion)
- NEH: National Endowment for the Humanities (2001 budget: $0.1 billion)
- NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission
- NSF: National Science Foundation (2001 budget: $4.4 billion)
- Peace Corps: overseas volunteer service
- SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission
- SBA: Small Business Administration (2001 budget: $0.3 billion)
- Smithsonian: National Museum (2001 budget: $0.5 billion)
- SSA: Social Security Administration (2001 budget: $6.0 billion)
- USAID: U.S. Agency for International Development
- USITC: U.S. International Trade Commission
- USPS: U.S. Postal Service
- (2001 discretionary budget for all other agencies not detailed above totals $11.7 billion. Note that mandatory spending is not included in budget figures. Total of all discretionary spending for FY 2001 is $661.6 billion.)
Some additional federal agencies are overseen directly by the Executive branch:
- NSA: National Security Agency
- NSC: National Security Council
- OMB: Office of Management and Budget, the President's counterpart to Congress' CBO.
- ONDCP: Office of National Drug Control Policy
- USTR: Office of U.S. Trade Representative
Source for budget figures: US Budget FY 2002 Presidential Request, Table S-6, Discretionary Budget Authority by Agency. Note that mandatory spending is not included in budget figures.