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  • Headlines on the Issues
    Abortion Government Reform
    Budget & Economy Gun Control
    China Health Care
    Civil Rights Juvenile Crime
    Crime Kosovo
    Defense Principles & Values
    Drugs School Choice
    Education Social Security
    Environment Tax Reform
    Families & Children Technology
    Foreign Policy Welfare & Labor
    Free Trade & Immigration

    Background on Abortion
    The essence of the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision is that Constitutional rights apply only after birth; hence abortion does not breach a person’s right to life. States cannot regulate 1st trimester abortions; states can regulate but not ban 2nd trimester abortions; and states can ban 3rd trimester abortions (as many have).

    The debate on abortion generally focuses on when human life begins. The courts often focus on ‘viability’, the point at which the fetus could survive outside the womb. Viability naturally begins at about 6 months of pregnancy, but with modern medical advances the age of viability is pushed back substantially. Strong pro-life advocates believe that the fetus should be protected from the moment of conception.


    (click a book cover for a review or
    other books on Abortion from Amazon.com)

    Headlines on Abortion
    Al Gore Feb 26, 2000 Personal struggle on abortion reflected in evolving view
    Al Gore Feb 26, 2000 Voted against federal funding for abortions in Congress
    John McCain Feb 21, 2000 McCain family decisions on abortion are private
    George W. Bush Feb 15, 2000 Supports GOP abortion plank but disagrees on exceptions
    George W. Bush Feb 15, 2000 No Republican will allow partial-birth abortion
    John McCain Jan 31, 2000 Prosecute abortion doctors, not women who get them
    Al Gore Jan 30, 2000 Abortion question is for women, not government or president
    Al Gore Jan 30, 2000 Wrote in 1984 that “abortion is arguably taking a life”
    Alan Keyes Jan 28, 2000 Not OK to kill child of 6; not OK to kill child in the womb
    Al Gore Jan 26, 2000 Right to choose regardless of income
    Al Gore Jan 26, 2000 Voted against Medicare-funded abortions; but now supports it
    Alan Keyes Jan 26, 2000 God’s choice: “Just Say No” to abortion
    Bill Bradley Jan 26, 2000 Consistency on issues of principle matters
    John McCain Jan 26, 2000 “Family Conference” if daughter wanted an abortion
    John McCain Jan 25, 2000 Abortion OK if raped; and no testing for rape
    George W. Bush Jan 22, 2000 States should decide abortion issue; not Roe v. Wade
    Hillary Clinton Jan 22, 2000 Remain vigilant on a woman’s right to chose
    John McCain Jan 22, 2000 Supports fetal tissue research; against over-intensity
    John McCain Jan 22, 2000 Feds involved because fed money is used for abortions
    John McCain Jan 22, 2000 Overturn Roe v. Wade, but keep incest & rape exceptions
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 No gov’t funding of abortion, but no prohibitions either
    George W. Bush Jan 10, 2000 No pro-life pledge; VP & judges will simply be qualified
    Rudy Giuliani Dec 2, 1999 Pro-choice; no ban on partial-birth abortions
    Pat Buchanan Dec 1, 1999 The unborn have rights; defund the abortion industry
    John McCain Oct 29, 1999 Support adoption & foster care; work together on abortion
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 First Priority is to End Legalized Abortion
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Killing of the innocent, young or old, is unconstitutional
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Both parties support pro-abortion Supreme Court Justices
    John McCain Aug 24, 1999 Wants Roe vs. Wade made irrelevant, but would not repeal it
    John McCain Aug 24, 1999 Opposes partial-birth abortions & public financing
    Pat Buchanan Jul 2, 1999 Presidency supports traditional values, not gays & abortion
    George W. Bush Jun 14, 1999 Would support - but not pursue - a pro-life Amendment
    John McCain Jun 14, 1999 Nominate justices based on experience, and values
    George W. Bush Jun 7, 1999 Reduce abortions by means within current law
    George W. Bush Jun 7, 1999 Ideal: Value every life; but many steps to get there
    George W. Bush Jun 7, 1999 Supports Parental Notification Law for minor girls
    Al Gore Jun 1, 1999 Always, always defend a woman’s right to choose
    Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 Appoint pro-life judges; fight “Culture of Death”
    Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 Resist clinic bombings with full force of government
    Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 Protect privacy of decision between woman and doctor
    Pat Buchanan May 19, 1999 Abortion is greatest evil since slavery
    Pat Buchanan Mar 21, 1999 Strictly pro-life Supreme Court & Vice Pres. nominees
    George W. Bush Mar 8, 1999 Ban partial-birth; ban taxpayer funding
    Hillary Clinton Jan 22, 1999 Keep abortion safe, legal and rare
    Hillary Clinton Jan 22, 1999 Being pro-choice is not being pro-abortion
    Hillary Clinton Jan 22, 1999 Reach out to teens to reduce teen sex problems
    Alan Keyes Jan 6, 1999 Abortion is unjust and immoral.
    Alan Keyes Jan 6, 1999 Mothers have no right to take a fetus’ life.
    Harry Browne Dec 1, 1998 No govt imposition; encourage private alternatives
    Al Gore Nov 19, 1998 Abortions should be safe, legal, and rare
    Al Gore Nov 19, 1998 Supports Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances law
    Al Gore Nov 19, 1998 More family planning; less parental consent
    George W. Bush Jul 2, 1998 Encourage fewer abortions via adoption & abstinence
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Restrict abortions; no partial-birth; no public funding
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 The federal government should have no role in the matter.
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Abortion is wrong, but govt has no role in it
    Alan Keyes Jun 30, 1995 Only exception is to preserve life of mother

    Background on Budget & Economy

    Major components of 1999 budget

    Spending in 1999's $1.8 trillion budget Federal revenue sources
    $400 billion (22%) Social Security payments
    $310 billion (17%) Medicare/Medicaid payments
    $200 billion (11%) interest on the National Debt
    $320 billion (18%) other ‘mandatory’ payments
    $270 billion (15%) national defense
    $300 billion (17%) other ‘discretionary spending’.

    $900 billion (48%) individual income taxes
    $600 billion (34%) social insurance (FICA)
    $200 billion (10%) corporate income taxes
    $100 billion (8%) other taxes & duties

    Balanced Budget Amendment (BBA)

    A Constitutional requirement for a balanced federal budget was a hot issue in the previous Presidential campaign. But since the federal budget has now been ‘balanced,’ the impetus for an Amendment has been reduced. The debate now focuses on what fiscal restraints should be implemented to maintain a balanced budget in the future, and on what to do with the budget surplus.

    Budget Deficit versus National Debt

    A budget deficit means that the amount the government receives in taxes in one fiscal year is less than the amount that the government has spent. Generally, the government ‘borrows’ money from people by issuing bonds to cover the deficit.

    The accumulated borrowing is the ‘National Debt’ that the government must repay in the future. The current federal debt stands at about $5.5 trillion, which is the equivalent of roughly $20,000 per person. The federal government pays about $200 billion in annual interest on the national debt.

    Social Security Trust Fund

    Much debate focuses on how the budget surplus is calculated and how the Social Security Trust Fund is accounted for. The Trust Fund is ‘off-budget,’ which means it is not counted in the reporting of the budget.

    However, the government reports the budget surplus or deficit from a ‘Unified Budget’ which does include the Trust Fund. Hence the growth of the Fund offsets the shortfall in the budget. In 1998, the budget surplus was reported as $40 billion on the unified budget. Discounting the Trust Fund, the budget would have been in deficit by $50 billion.

    The Federal Reserve

    Alan Greenspan is the chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, which is known as ‘The Fed.’ The Federal Reserve chairman is appointed to a 4-year term by the President but then cannot be removed, to allow The Fed independence in monetary policy.

    Greenspan’s primary responsibility is to set the interest rates that the government pays on its bonds. Those rates in turn determine bank interest rates, mortgage lending rates, and other interest rates.

    When interest rates rise, in theory, inflation increases and the economy slows down. Hence, Greenspan raises interest rates (‘tightens money’) when he sees the economy as ‘overheating,’ and lowers interest rates (‘loosens money’) when he sees inflation threatening.

    Headlines on Budget & Economy
    Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Allow citizen lawsuits for waste in govt spending
    Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 The economy is down, when measured by human yardsticks
    Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Budget surplus is over-taxation, so return it all
    George W. Bush Jan 26, 2000 10-year surplus: $2T Social Security; $1T debt; $1T tax cut
    George W. Bush Jan 26, 2000 Use presidential power to get money away from Congress
    John McCain Jan 26, 2000 Use veto power to reduce government spending
    Bill Bradley Jan 25, 2000 Early supporter of simplifying taxes, cutting deficit & debt
    Alan Keyes Jan 13, 2000 More $ for defense, NASA, parks; less for Ag, educ, arts
    Alan Keyes Jan 13, 2000 Enforce spending limits to balance the budget
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Decrease defense & police $; eliminate everything else
    Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 Economic development requires maintenance
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 2000 More for tech education since tech created surplus
    Al Gore Jan 5, 2000 Policy making should include understanding markets
    Bill Bradley Jan 5, 2000 America’s prosperity must also benefit the poor
    John McCain Jan 4, 2000 Distribute surplus: 23% tax cuts; 62% Social Security
    Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 Pledges to reduce national debt every year
    Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 Economic slowdown would prompt Reinvention push
    Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 Clinton-Gore budget concepts broke cycle of recession
    Pat Buchanan Dec 15, 1999 Lethal projectile-the trade deficit-aimed at US workers
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Federal government should stay out of the marketplace
    Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Fiscal responsibility turned $2B deficit into $2B su
    Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Record tourism based on revitalization
    Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Entertainment revitalization contributes to economy
    Bill Bradley Dec 7, 1999 Don’t raise taxes during economic downturns
    George W. Bush Dec 7, 1999 Guarantees future surpluses with his tax plan
    Ralph Nader Nov 15, 1999 Fed worries wrongly about wage inflation over profits
    Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Pay down debt; reduce federal share of economy
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Set aside 15-16% of budget surplus to fix Medicare
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Low interest rates are a key to strong economy
    John McCain Oct 1, 1999 $9B of pork in current budget bills; cut subsidies
    Pat Buchanan Sep 18, 1999 Interventionist in US economy; isolationist abroad
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Smaller budget-or no budget-is better than a balanced budget
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 The Fed is an instrument for legalized plunder
    Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Re-appoint Alan Greenspan as Federal Reserve chairman
    Ralph Nader Jul 27, 1999 Spend surplus on public works & infrastructure
    John McCain Jul 2, 1999 For Balanced Budget Amend., & off-budget Social Security
    Hillary Clinton Jun 17, 1999 We have outlived the usefulness of Bretton Woods
    Hillary Clinton Jun 17, 1999 The economy creates consumers but cannot create citizens
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 Supports Balanced Budget Amendment & tax cuts
    Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 Open markets; low taxes; research investments
    Al Gore May 14, 1999 Reinventing Government cuts waste and inefficiency.
    Al Gore May 14, 1999 Balance or surplus except in crises.
    Al Gore May 14, 1999 Fiscal discipline; invest in people; open markets.
    Al Gore May 14, 1999 5-point plan for economic growth
    George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Simplify tax code to stimulate economic growth
    Harry Browne Mar 23, 1999 Neither Dems nor Reps “reign in spending”
    George W. Bush Jan 27, 1999 Commit funds to education and tax cuts
    Alan Keyes Jan 7, 1999 Amend the Constitution to limit borrowing and spending.
    George W. Bush Jul 2, 1998 More job training; R&D tax credits
    George W. Bush Jul 2, 1998 Tax financing of sports stadiums ok, after vote
    George W. Bush Jul 2, 1998 Supports Balanced Budget Amendment
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 List of budgetary spending priorities
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Supports Balanced Budget Amendment
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Apply surplus to Social Security, Medicare, tax cuts & debt
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Amendment: Limit spending to prior year’s revenue
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Against block grants; repeal income tax instead.
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Priorities: cut budget; repeal income tax; pay off debt
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Great Depression was caused by federal monetary policies
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Politicians don’t want to reduce government
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Reduce budget from $1.5 trillion to $385 billion
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Get rid of $5 trillion debt by selling federal assets

    Background on China

    ‘One China’ Policy

    The US, the ROC, and the PRC agreed in 1972 to the ‘One China’ policy, under which all parties abide by the fiction that China is one country currently under two governments but awaiting eventual reunification.

    China is formally known as ‘The People’s Republic of China’, or ‘PRC.’ The PRC is home to nearly a billion and a half people, over 20% of the world’s population. The PRC has been ruled by the Chinese Communist Party since 1949.

    Taiwan is known as ‘The Republic of China’ or ‘ROC.’ Taiwan is an island off the coast of the PRC, and has a democratically elected government. Taiwan is home to 21 million people, but its economy is comparable in size to the PRC. Taiwan split from the PRC during the Communist Revolution, when the former government was driven off the mainland by the Communists.

    The US has promised to defend Taiwan against an invasion from China. China has promised to invade if Taiwan declares independence, most recently in July 1999 when Taiwan's President declared the ‘One China’ policy a fiction.

    The Cox Report

    A House of Representatives Committee chaired by Rep. Christopher Cox released a National Security report in May 1999 known as the ‘Cox Report.’ The report detailed how the Chinese government spied on US nuclear facilities over the last two decades and as a result was able to improve their nuclear capabilities. A secret version of the report was released to President Clinton in January 1999.

    The candidates’ views on the Cox Report focus on what should be done to prevent further Chinese spying, and on what the government should do about past Chinese spying.

    MFN

    ‘MFN’ means that China is treated in our trade relations in the same manner as we treat our ‘Most Favored Nations’ as trading partners. Granting China MFN status means that we have open trade with them.

    Congress reviews MFN status annually to decide if China should be granted MFN status for the next year. Granting MFN status in recent years has been tied to the improvement of China’s human rights record. Talks are held between the US and the PRC to decide which human rights violations will be addressed, and then MFN status is granted.

    The term ‘MFN’ has been replaced this year by ‘Normal Trading Relations’, abbreviated ‘NTR’, which means the same thing.

    WTO

    The World Trade Organization is the international agency which defines the rules of global trade between nations. Its purpose is to ensure free trade. Its 135 member nations, including the US and most other large economies, agree to keep import tariffs below specified levels when applied to other WTO members.

    China is seeking membership in the WTO because that would ensure China of free trade with other WTO members. If granted WTO membership, China would no longer be subject to its annual MFN review. But China would also have to abide by the WTO trade rules themselves, which would mean lowering their import tariffs against US goods.

    Headlines on China
    George W. Bush Feb 26, 2000 No strategic ambiguity: US will defend Taiwan against China
    George W. Bush Feb 15, 2000 China is an American competitor, not a friend
    John McCain Jan 28, 2000 $1M political donations by Chinese Army should not be legal
    Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Nuclear espionage results from over-large bureaucracy
    George W. Bush Jan 10, 2000 Entrepreneurial China trade differs from totalitarian Cuba
    Al Gore Jan 5, 2000 Engage China, but demand respect for human rights
    Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 Supports permanent normal trade relations with China
    Al Gore Dec 18, 1999 Diplomacy with both Taiwan and China
    Bill Bradley Dec 18, 1999 Be direct with Taiwan & China: Maintain status quo
    George W. Bush Dec 13, 1999 China in WTO is good for US farm exports
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Criticized authoritarian practices with women & children
    George W. Bush Dec 7, 1999 WTO for both China & Taiwan; maintain Taiwan relations law
    George W. Bush Dec 7, 1999 China’s taste of freedom encourages capitalism’s growth
    Alan Keyes Dec 3, 1999 Clarifying commitment to Taiwan avoids Chinese attack
    Alan Keyes Dec 3, 1999 Military intervention to ensure Taiwan’s self-determination
    Pat Buchanan Nov 17, 1999 China trade pact is a complete sellout
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Don’t aggravate Beijing, but don’t appease
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Impose tariffs on China; end World Bank loans
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Support Free Asia with materiel but no troops
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Truculent but contained China is no threat
    Pat Buchanan Sep 12, 1999 Provide Taiwan with defensive weapons against China
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 China has bought support in Congress
    Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Cox Report: Focus on security lapse, not espionage
    Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Reaffirm “One China,” but defend Taiwan
    Pat Buchanan Jun 14, 1999 Match 100% tariffs from Japan & China
    John McCain Jun 14, 1999 Admit China to WTO based on their concessions
    John McCain Jun 14, 1999 China: Advocate for political reforms, and guard Taiwan
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 China: Shame the regime & end trade concessions
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 China: End MFN; veto WTO entry; block technology
    Al Gore May 26, 1999 Suports MFN for China
    George W. Bush May 26, 1999 Chinese nuclear spying will shift balance of power
    John McCain May 26, 1999 Inaction on spying led to Chinese nuclear improvement
    George W. Bush May 25, 1999 Reaction to espionage was not serious and not enough
    George W. Bush May 25, 1999 Cox Report warrants review of all export controls to China
    John McCain Apr 30, 1999 Engage with China as they become a great power
    John McCain Apr 30, 1999 China: Keep open trade & diplomacy; but keep eyes open
    Al Gore Nov 18, 1998 Speed up China’s access to WTO
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 No import tariffs, regardless of human rights
    Alan Keyes Sep 6, 1995 An egregious abuser of human life and human rights
    Bill Bradley Oct 1, 1992 Voted against MFN & for linkage to human rights

    Background on Civil Rights
    The civil rights category encompasses the following issues:

      Women’s Rights

    • Domestic Violence
    • Equal Pay for Equal Work
    • ‘Glass Ceiling’

      Minority Rights

    • Hate Crimes
    • Affirmative Action
    • Reverse Discrimation & Quotas
    • Racial Profiling & ‘redlining’
    • Bilingual education and government
    • Commission on Race

      Gay Rights

    • Same-Sex Marriage
    • Job Discrimination Against Gays

      Disabled Rights

    • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    • Handicapped Access
    • Mental Illness Discrimination

      Religious Rights

    • School Prayer
    • Separation of Church & State
    • Posting Ten Commandments in public places

      Other Civil Rights

    • Flag-Burning Amendment
    • Pornography issues
    • Gambling, Prostitution, & ‘victimless crimes’
    • Funding for NEA
    • Right to Privacy

      Background Documents:

    • ADA, full text of Americans with Disabilities Act.
    • ADA, Dept. of Justice site.
    • Hawaii HB117, same-sex marriage law.
    • Texas v. Johnson, flag-burning case.

    Amendment I to the US Constitution

    Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.... (1791)

    Headlines on Civil Rights
    George W. Bush Feb 25, 2000 Apologizes for anti-Catholic appearance at Bob Jones U.
    George W. Bush Feb 24, 2000 Repudiates anti-Catholicism despite Bob Jones University
    Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Address racial profiling in civil life as well as laws
    Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Minorities benefit most from opportunity
    Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Keep affirmative action; reject numerical quotas
    Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 The US should acknowledge African-American suffering
    Alan Keyes Feb 15, 2000 Leaders must face racial bigotry, not ignore it
    George W. Bush Feb 15, 2000 Against gay marriage, but leave it to the states
    John McCain Feb 15, 2000 Inter-racial dating ban is idiotic and cruel
    Hillary Clinton Feb 11, 2000 Gays deserve domestic partnership benefits
    Alan Keyes Jan 28, 2000 Our rights come from God, not from the Constitution
    John McCain Jan 28, 2000 Career-long history of supporting Indian causes
    Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 President should stay out of questions of gay marriage
    Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Flag burning is protected political speech
    Al Gore Jan 17, 2000 Confederate flag divides-remove it, but no boycott
    Al Gore Jan 17, 2000 Ban racial profiling by Executive Order
    Al Gore Jan 17, 2000 Latinos considered for Supreme Court, but no pledge
    Al Gore Jan 17, 2000 Review disenfranchisement of felons but keep concept
    Al Gore Jan 17, 2000 More minorities in government to reflect America
    Al Gore Jan 17, 2000 Expand laws for gays but don’t re-open Civil Rights Act
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 Pull down Confederate flag immediately
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 Affirmative action battles subtle racism
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 End racial profiling by Executive Order
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 Latinos should be on Supreme Court, but no commitment
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 Rescind disenfranchisement if released felons keep straight
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 Diversity creates the best Administration
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 I’ve seen racism, and it must end
    Alan Keyes Jan 16, 2000 Ten Commandments & prayer should be in schools
    Alan Keyes Jan 16, 2000 Conducting gov’t in Spanish assaults our linguistic unity
    George W. Bush Jan 16, 2000 Ten Commandments OK in schools for “inherent values”
    George W. Bush Jan 16, 2000 Respect Spanish heritage, but conduct government in English
    John McCain Jan 16, 2000 Ten Commandments would bring virtue to our schools
    John McCain Jan 16, 2000 Confederate flag is a “symbol of heritage”
    Hillary Clinton Jan 14, 2000 Crack down on sex trafficking of women and girls
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Racism is immoral; but end affirmative action
    Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 End affirmative action
    John McCain Jan 13, 2000 Allow, but not mandate, school prayer
    Al Gore Jan 8, 2000 Women deserve equal pay for equal work
    Alan Keyes Jan 7, 2000 Signed pledge to reinstitute ban on gays in military
    George W. Bush Jan 7, 2000 Leave decisions on flying Confederate flag to the states
    Alan Keyes Jan 6, 2000 No separation of church & state; fight uniform irreligion
    Alan Keyes Jan 6, 2000 Oppose gay agenda in military & marriage laws
    Hillary Clinton Jan 1, 2000 Human rights are women’s rights
    John McCain Dec 21, 1999 Would be “comfortable” with a gay president
    Pat Buchanan Dec 21, 1999 Would oppose a gay president “with everything I had”
    Bill Bradley Dec 18, 1999 Gays should have same rights as others, except marriage
    Al Gore Dec 13, 1999 Eliminate ‘don’t ask, don’t tell’; let gays serve in army
    Al Gore Dec 12, 1999 Affirmative action still needed - continue the fight
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Women’s rights are human rights
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Military service based on conduct, not sex
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 New Yorkers should all just get along
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Supports same-sex partnerships; but not “marriage” title
    Pat Buchanan Oct 25, 1999 Abolish quotas; all learn English
    Bill Bradley Oct 17, 1999 Civil Rights Act & hate crime laws cover gays
    Hillary Clinton Oct 3, 1999 Don’t punish Brooklyn Museum for Sensation
    Rudy Giuliani Oct 3, 1999 Brooklyn Museum closed due to lease rules, not censorship
    Rudy Giuliani Oct 3, 1999 Free speech for private expression, not publicly-funded art
    Rudy Giuliani Oct 3, 1999 No taxpayer dollars for offensive art
    Pat Buchanan Oct 1, 1999 AIDS is retribution; women can’t compete
    Bill Bradley Sep 20, 1999 Opposed to same-sex marriages, but won’t ban them
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 End anti-Christianity in Congressional spending
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Direction taken from God on gay rights issues
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Respect rights because they’re bestowed by God, not state
    John McCain Sep 4, 1999 Flying Confederate flag should be left to states
    George W. Bush Aug 19, 1999 No gays in Boy Scouts
    John McCain Aug 13, 1999 1st Amend. not a shield for hate groups
    George W. Bush Aug 6, 1999 English-plus, not English-only
    John McCain Aug 3, 1999 Indian gambling OK; lottery is not
    George W. Bush Jul 26, 1999 State lottery OK, but qualms about casino gambling
    Pat Buchanan Jul 26, 1999 Legal gambling is a “destructive vice”
    John McCain Jul 21, 1999 Hollywood should voluntarily self-censor sex and violence
    George W. Bush Jul 2, 1999 Hate-crime rules don’t apply to gays
    Pat Buchanan Jul 2, 1999 End racial busing, quotas, & contract set-asides
    Bill Bradley Jun 18, 1999 Posting Ten Commandments in schools seems unconstitutional
    George W. Bush Jun 14, 1999 Reach out to minorities, but without quotas
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 Close NEA to stop desecration of Christian images
    Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Racial & gender entitlements are Govt-sponsored prejudice
    Harry Browne Jun 3, 1999 Remove government power to fight victimless crimes
    Harry Browne Jun 3, 1999 Bank rules against drugs hurt privacy
    Al Gore Jun 1, 1999 Need more opportunities for women-owned businesses
    Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 Color-blind laws: end trendy bigotry of diversity
    Alan Keyes May 21, 1999 Warns that Supreme Court has advanced gay marriage agenda
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Streamline disability and advocacy processes
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 End discrimination based on mental illnesses
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Fund and enforce the Disabilities Act
    Bill Bradley May 10, 1999 Race relations solution: Talk & be vulnerable.
    John McCain Apr 28, 1999 Supports Amendment against flag-burning
    Bill Bradley Apr 21, 1999 Racial unity is a defining moral issue.
    John McCain Mar 15, 1999 We don’t need laws against Spanish language & culture
    Alan Keyes Jan 6, 1999 Preferential affirmative action is patronizing.
    Alan Keyes Oct 16, 1998 “Hate crime” laws will be used to punish anti-gay opinions
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Affirmative action OK for specific programs, but no quotas
    George W. Bush Apr 6, 1998 Reject quotas, double standards & “group thought”
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Indian reservations are not for get-rich-quick schemes
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 In Senate, worked to safeguard rights of Native Americans
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Address racism via behavioral problems in blacks & whites
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Federal govt should be color-blind
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 No School Prayer Amendment
    Bill Bradley Jan 16, 1996 Amendment: political spending is not free speech
    Howard Phillips Aug 7, 1993 Censorship is dumbing down our children

    Background on Crime
    The 1996 National Crime Victimization Survey found the lowest overall crime rate since the survey began in 1973. Despite the falling crime rate, taking into account both violent crime and property crime, 83 percent of Americans can expect to be a victim of crime at least once in their lifetime.
    ‘Three Strikes’ Laws
    ‘Three Strikes’ laws mean that people convicted of a third felony receive a mandatory life sentence. Some candidates advocate ‘Two Strikes’ or ‘One Strike,’ which generally means more mandatory sentencing, less judicial discretion, and less chance of early parole.
    ‘Broken Windows’ Laws
    ‘Broken Windows’ laws mean that police focus on ‘quality of life’ issues as much as on crime itself. By addressing even minor crimes such as broken windows, according to this theory, a community is less likely to tolerate any crime, and overall crime rates should fall.
    ‘Community Policing’
    ‘Community Policing’ refers to a policy of crime prevention replacing incident response. It is often accompanied by a ‘broken windows’ policy, or by increased police presence on the streets.
    Capital Punishment
    The death penalty is currently implemented in 30 states. It was re-legalized by a Supreme Court decision in 1977. Since then, 552 people have been executed. About 3,335 inmates remain on ‘Death Row.’ Texas is by far the national leader in executions -- it has executed 178 people as of June 1999, 32% of the national total.

    Much of the current controversy about the death penalty focuses on the circumstances where it should be applied, and on its unequal application among racial and socioeconomic classes. About 52% of death row inmates are Black or other minority, versus 17% in the general population. Over 98% of death row inmates are male.

    Tort Reform
    A ‘tort’ means a civil infraction as opposed to a criminal violation. ‘Tort reform’ includes capping lawsuit rewards; banning ‘frivolous lawsuits’; or some other change in civil lawsuit procedures.
    Amendments V and VIII to the US Constitution
    V. No person shall... be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.... (1791)
    VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. (1791)

    Candidates’ views on related issues:
    Juvenile Crime
    Drugs
    Gun Control
    Civil Rights

    (Click a book cover for a review or click for other books on Crime policy or Capital Punishment from Amazon.com)

    Headlines on Crime
    Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Supports death penalty; no moratorium for new DNA techniques
    Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Three Strikes should apply only to truly violent crimes
    Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Education and fair policing will reduce black incarceration
    Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 No mandatory sentencing for first-time minor drug offenders
    Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 Federal law should address racial profiling
    Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Mandatory sentencing takes jail space from real criminals
    Alan Keyes Jan 26, 2000 Without death penalty for murder, we disregard life
    Al Gore Jan 17, 2000 Recognizes disparities in sentencing blacks
    George W. Bush Jan 17, 2000 Proper age for death penalty is 17
    Alan Keyes Jan 13, 2000 Stricter penalties; truth in sentencing
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 No federal law enforcement; let states handle crime
    John McCain Jan 13, 2000 More death penalty; stricter sentencing
    John McCain Jan 13, 2000 More community policing; enough hate crime laws
    Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 Home ownership decreases crime
    Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 Need DNA Lab to Combat Crime
    George W. Bush Jan 7, 2000 Bush is confident that none of 112 executed were innocent
    George W. Bush Jan 7, 2000 Death penalty clemency for bad process, not for repentance
    Al Gore Dec 18, 1999 Fight terrorism with leadership, tight control of technology
    Bill Bradley Dec 18, 1999 Combat terrorism with broad inter-agency approach
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Limit frivolous lawsuits to create entrepreneurial heaven
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Stop hurting business with excessive punitive damage awards
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Supports death penalty as deterrent
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Proud of eliminating parole for violent criminals
    Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Crime cut in half in NYC
    Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 “CompStat” system stresses police accountability
    Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Giuliani’s sampling: large drops in all violent crim
    Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Quality of Life initiatives as well as crime reducti
    Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Stop gun rampages by requiring press silence
    Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Prompt death penalty would stop mass murderers
    Pat Buchanan Sep 12, 1999 Clemency for Puerto Rican terrorists is “shameful”
    Pat Buchanan Sep 12, 1999 Reno should have resigned over Waco debacle
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Keep federal government out of common crime enforcement
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 First priority: pardon non-violent offenders
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Stop prosecuting victimless crime; real crime then decreases
    John McCain Aug 13, 1999 Urges hearings on how FBI can deter Hate Crimes
    John McCain Aug 13, 1999 1st Amend. not a shield for hate groups
    Rudy Giuliani Jul 12, 1999 Risk cannot be eliminated, but take security seriously
    George W. Bush Jul 5, 1999 Vetoes indigent lawyer reform as “a danger”
    Alan Keyes Jun 14, 1999 “Hate crime” laws inappropriately punish attitudes
    Al Gore Jun 14, 1999 Fight against domestic violence and for safe streets
    George W. Bush Jun 12, 1999 Criminal rehabilitation by Prison Ministry after release
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 Tort reform: limit damages; loser pays legal fees
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Hire 50,000 more “community police officers”
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Death penalty for murdering federal officers
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Supports “Three Strikes -- You’re Out” law
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Supports “Broken Windows” law enforcement
    Al Gore Feb 8, 1999 Steady & relentless anti-crime plan has yielded results
    George W. Bush Dec 31, 1998 Supports “two strikes” & registration for sexual criminals.
    George W. Bush Dec 31, 1998 Supports victim notification laws and anti-stalking laws.
    Harry Browne Jul 13, 1998 End the War on Drugs to free up prisons and police
    Harry Browne Jul 13, 1998 War on Drugs causes gang warfare and police corruption
    Harry Browne Jul 13, 1998 Legal drugs cost less so addicts would steal less
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Pro-death penalty; more prisons; increased penalties
    George W. Bush Jan 28, 1997 More searches and less parole for criminals
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Urban future: transform; or we’ll abandon or encircle
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Answer to crime is local, not federal
    Howard Phillips Oct 7, 1996 Federal crime funding makes enforcement less accountable
    Howard Phillips Oct 7, 1996 Crime should be handled locally, quickly and firmly
    Howard Phillips Oct 7, 1996 Citizens delegate law enforcement to government
    Bill Bradley Sep 12, 1996 Wiretap & deport suspected terrorists; use taggants
    Alan Keyes Jul 2, 1996 Supports capital punishment.
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Against capital punishment
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Pardon non-violent drug offendors to free prison space
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Against anti-terrorist laws, since the hurt the innocent
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Most federal law enforcement is unconstitutional
    Alan Keyes Apr 4, 1995 Capital punishment is necessary to show respect for life
    George W. Bush Feb 7, 1995 Mandatory sentencing for repeat offenders
    Bill Bradley Nov 17, 1993 Voted in favor of death penalty & against appeals

    Background on Defense
    ‘Hollow Military’
    The ‘hollow military’ refers to a reduced size of the US armed forces resulting in lack of readiness. The term was popularized in the post-Vietnam 1970s, but has come back into use for the post-Cold War. Current US military policy is to achieve sufficient ‘readiness’ to fight two ‘nearly-simultaneous’ wars.

    ‘Star Wars’ Strategic Defense Initiative
    President Reagan in the 1980s proposed the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI, popularly known as the ‘Star Wars’ Missile Defense). It has been under development in the US since then. Some aspects of testing and deployment of SDI would breach the ABM Treaty and the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. In particular, deploying a missile defense system only within the US would breach the ABM Treaty, but the US and Russia have issued numerous statements advocating a ‘global protection system’ as well as ‘theater defense systems.’ The ‘Aegis defense system’ is the Navy’s existing ship-based anti-missile system.

    ABM Treaty
    The Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972 is an agreement that neither the USA nor the USSR would build any nation-wide missile defense, on the theory that ‘Mutually Assured Destruction’ was the best means to avoid nuclear war. Russia and the 3 other post-Soviet nuclear states have agreed to abide by the USSR’s limitations within the ABM Treaty.

    ‘Loose Nukes’ and Weapons of Mass Destruction
    Concern over nuclear war has been replaced by concern over proliferation of nuclear technology and other Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs, referring to nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons). The concern is that terrorists or ‘rogue states’ will unleash WMDs on the US or elsewhere.

    ‘Loose Nukes’ refer to the sale or theft of nuclear weapons from the former USSR. The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) addresses loose nukes, and is the primary arms control treaty under negotiation today. Existing treaties address ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) and SLBMs (submarine-launched ballistic missiles), both of which can reach the US; recent negotiations include non-missile nuclear threats.


    Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
    The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty intends to limit nuclear proliferation. As of April 1999, it has been signed by 152 countries and ratified by 32, but requires 44 ratifications to enter into force of law. Ratification implies that a nation will not advance its nuclear technology beyond its present status. India & Pakistan, who both exploded nuclear devices in 1998, have promised to sign the Treaty now that their testing is complete.
    CountryNuclear StatusSigned
    China400 warheads; at most 50 on ICBMs; 45 nuclear tests9/24/96; unratified.
    France450 warheads; 210 nuclear tests9/24/96; ratified 4/6/98
    IndiaConducted tests, 1998Unsigned
    IranSeeking nuclear capability9/24/96
    IraqSeeking nuclear capabilityUnsigned
    Israel Unacknowledged nuclear capability9/25/96; unratified.
    North KoreaFrozen development programUnsigned
    PakistanConducted tests, 1998Unsigned
    Russia23,000 warheads; 715 nuclear tests; 3,630 warheads on ICBMs,
    including missiles in Belarus, Ukraine, & Kazakhstan
    9/24/96; unratified.
    South AfricaDeveloped weapons but relinquished them in 19939/24/96; unratified.
    United Kingdom260 warheads; 45 nuclear tests.9/24/96; ratified 4/6/98
    United States1,030 nuclear tests and 12,000 warheads,
    including 2,000 ICBMs & 3,450 SLBMs.
    9/24/96; rejected 10/13/99.

    (click a book cover for a review or click for other books on Defense or SDI from Amazon.com.)

    Headlines on Defense
    John McCain Feb 26, 2000 Disagrees with Perot: No more POWs in Vietnam
    Alan Keyes Feb 15, 2000 Set aside the ABM treaty and build SDI
    Alan Keyes Feb 15, 2000 Rapidly develop & deploy an anti-missile defense system
    Alan Keyes Feb 15, 2000 What you see is what you get over “don’t ask, don’t tell.”
    George W. Bush Feb 15, 2000 Use arms to defend Europe, Far East, Mideast, & Panama
    George W. Bush Feb 15, 2000 Commander-in-Chief defines mission; Generals prepare for it
    Al Gore Feb 3, 2000 Sensible increases in defense spending
    Pat Buchanan Feb 3, 2000 Build SDI; “Retrench and rearm”
    Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 We have strong offense & weak defense-switch it
    Al Gore Jan 26, 2000 Stay engaged with Russia over nuclear disarmament
    Bill Bradley Jan 26, 2000 It’s time for a post-Cold War (smaller) defense budget
    George W. Bush Jan 26, 2000 Top-down review to decide which programs to cancel
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Fund SDI, pay, & readiness; cut CIA & everything else
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Deploy SDI; no need to fight spread of nukes
    Al Gore Jan 11, 2000 Appointees must ENFORCE allowing gays; not AGREE with policy
    Al Gore Jan 8, 2000 Commit troops only if diplomacy fails and if it’s winnable
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 2000 The UN, not the US, is the world’s policeman
    John McCain Jan 7, 2000 Military’s political leaders need military backgrounds
    Alan Keyes Jan 6, 2000 Ban homosexuals in the military
    George W. Bush Jan 6, 2000 America must win if US troops are committed
    John McCain Jan 6, 2000 Keep “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy - it works
    Pat Buchanan Jan 6, 2000 Declare war only after attack on US, interests, or honor
    Al Gore Jan 1, 2000 Led efforts to reduce nuclear weaponry & arms race
    Al Gore Jan 1, 2000 Led effort to dismantle post-Soviet nukes
    John McCain Dec 13, 1999 Women have proven themselves in combat-no restrictions
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Lesson from Vietnam: no political wars
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Increase spending on military pay plus R&D
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Supported Vietnam while a student in 1968, but not later
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Nixon should have been impeached for bombing Cambodia
    John McCain Dec 8, 1999 Rogue State Rollback: actively support resistance fighters
    John McCain Dec 8, 1999 Terminate C-130, B-2, and Seawolf; use funds to modernize
    John McCain Dec 8, 1999 Politicians keep unneeded bases open for political purposes
    Alan Keyes Dec 3, 1999 Missile defense umbrella including Taiwan
    Alan Keyes Nov 21, 1999 Keep some forces abroad, but avoid globalism
    Alan Keyes Nov 21, 1999 Defend human rights & self-govt within national interests
    John McCain Nov 21, 1999 Keep health care promises to aging veterans
    John McCain Nov 9, 1999 Bombing useless targets in Vietnam destroyed US morale
    John McCain Nov 9, 1999 Vietnam was a worthy cause despite losing
    John McCain Oct 29, 1999 $6.4B of military spending waste is a disgrace
    Bill Bradley Oct 28, 1999 Bring Test Ban Treaty back to Senate, and pass it
    Al Gore Oct 15, 1999 Test Ban Treaty is the tide of history; ratify it
    Al Gore Oct 15, 1999 20-year history of supporting comprehensive arms control
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 UK, France, & Germany should defend Europe
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Transfer NATO Army to Germany & Navy to France
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Annex Greenland
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 US hegemony will backfire to create a less secure world
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 NATO was conceived as a temporary alliance
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 We lost Vietnam because we fought on THEIR terms
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 No Pax Americana for post-Cold War
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 New World Order ties down US without vital interests
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Soldiers volunteer to defend US, not UN
    John McCain Sep 28, 1999 Pres. needs experience more than briefing books
    George W. Bush Sep 24, 1999 Increase military salaries & weapons spending
    George W. Bush Sep 24, 1999 Develop SDI, even if we must breach ABM treaty
    Bill Bradley Sep 20, 1999 Let gays serve openly in military
    Hillary Clinton Sep 16, 1999 A safe world needs the nuclear test ban treaty
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 SDI should be deployed
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 US should advocate liberty abroad, but only defend US
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Only Congress declares war, not Executive Orders
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 American troops fight for US and not the New World Order
    John McCain Aug 3, 1999 Raise military pay to avoid military draft
    John McCain Aug 3, 1999 Military personnel on food stamps is a national disgrace
    George W. Bush Jun 12, 1999 Rebuild military power to deal with world of terror
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 Expand defense budget for expanded global commitments
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 America must retrench and rearm
    Alan Keyes Jun 4, 1999 Kosovo sets precedent for more future intervention
    George W. Bush May 31, 1999 Soldiers need a clear mission & best support possible
    Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 Pay soldiers more; end “social labs”; exit Balkans
    Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 Eliminate weapons systems unnecessary in post-Cold War
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Supported 1980’s “build-down” of nuclear missiles
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Led dismantling of post-Soviet “loose nukes”
    Harry Browne May 16, 1999 Keep out of wars, rather than police the world
    Harry Browne May 16, 1999 Build missile defense by private reward system
    Harry Browne May 16, 1999 If US is attacked, target the dictator, not people
    John McCain Apr 30, 1999 Discard ABM Treaty and develop a missile defense
    John McCain Apr 30, 1999 Use force, with US control, only for vital interests
    John McCain Apr 30, 1999 Europeans should spend more on defense, within NATO
    Alan Keyes Aug 28, 1998 Supports missile strikes against terrorists abroad
    Harry Browne May 31, 1998 Focus on defense against missiles and invasions
    George W. Bush Apr 6, 1998 US military is key to preserving world peace
    Bill Bradley Jun 26, 1996 Voted against nuke tests; Somalia; continuing draft
    Bill Bradley Jun 4, 1996 Voted against SDI, Trident II, Seawolf, F-18s, & B-2s.
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 De-fund CIA; decrease R&D for new weapons.
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Avoid arms trade; promote peace by free trade
    Alan Keyes Feb 23, 1996 Citadel and VMI should remain all male
    Bill Bradley Aug 4, 1995 Voted for landmine ban; CIA disclosure; loose nukes
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Politician’s wars are heroic; real war is death & killing
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Wars have historically established nothing
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 6-point plan to get government out of war programs
    Alan Keyes Jun 30, 1995 No women in combat
    Al Gore Sep 18, 1992 Voted for B2 & Seawolf
    Howard Phillips Jan 1, 1992 Deploy missile defense and SDI; withdraw from ABM Treaty
    Al Gore Jul 23, 1991 Continue SDI research within ABM treaty
    Al Gore Jul 23, 1991 Deterrence works-replace it only when SDI works as well

    Background on Drugs
    War on Drugs
    President Bush initiated the ‘War on Drugs’ in the late 1980s. The Office of National Drug Control Policy, directed by Drug Czar Barry McCaffrey, sets federal policy. The 1999 drug policy includes:
  • Expanding drug prevention and drug treatment;
  • Establishing ‘drug courts’ and fighting drug legalization;
  • Focusing on cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine;
  • Increasing border shielding. 60% of federal prison inmates are drug offenders, as are 22% of state prisoners. 20% of all felony convictions are for drug trafficking; another 12% are for drug possession. About 270,000 people are incarcerated on drug charges, up from 48,000 at the start of the ‘Drug War.’ Direct federal spending on the ‘Drug War’ is currently $17 billion per year.

    Reducing the Demand
    Methods of reducing drug demand include: random drug testing; increased incarceration of users; and drug education. Since 1986, the courts have upheld random drug testing for federal employees; high school students; job applicants; transportation employees; motorists; and others. The current stated federal goal is a ‘Drug-Free Workplace.’

    Reducing the Supply
    Methods of reducing drug supply include: increased border patrols; increased enforcement against drug traffickers at home; and pressuring Latin American countries to do the same abroad. Federal ‘counterdrug interdiction’ currently focuses on five ‘High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas’: Los Angeles, New York City, Miami, Houston, and the Southwest border with Mexico.

    Reducing the Effects
    Methods of reducing drugs’ effects on society include: legalization; drug abuse treatment; and needle exchange programs. At congressional hearings on ‘The Pros and Cons of Drug Legalization, Decriminalization, and Harm Reduction’ in June 1999, the federal government reiterated its opposition to legalization, medical marijuana, and needle exchanges, and emphasized that the War on Drugs is an unending effort.
    Drug offendors who serve jail time or traditional probation have a recidivism rate of 45%. Of those who completed ‘drug courts’ monitored treatment programs, the rate was 4%.

    Amendment XVIII and XXI to the US Constitution
    18) ...the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors... is hereby prohibited. (1919)
    21) The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.... (1933)

    Background documents

    Headlines on Drugs
    Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Drug War makes streets a war zone
    Al Gore Jan 24, 2000 Did pot when young, like young people do
    Pat Buchanan Jan 24, 2000 Drug usage is not a victimless crime; so keep marijuana ban
    George W. Bush Jan 22, 2000 Identifies with former addicts based on former alcoholism
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 No mandatory sentencing for first-time drug offenders
    Alan Keyes Jan 13, 2000 Stricter drug penalties; more border security
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Decriminalize pot; end the war on drugs
    Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 More border security needed
    John McCain Jan 13, 2000 Public/private partnerships for drug treatment
    Bill Bradley Dec 18, 1999 Candidates’ long-past drug use shouldn’t matter
    Al Gore Nov 19, 1999 Decrease disparities in punishing crack vs. powder cocaine
    Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 It’s a moral crisis, not a drug problem
    Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 Drug problem is a symptom of governmental lack of discipline
    John McCain Oct 29, 1999 Prevention & education apply to alcohol as well as marijuana
    John McCain Oct 29, 1999 We’re losing drug war - just say no
    Al Gore Oct 13, 1999 Pot use in 60s was like moonshine in 20s
    Pat Buchanan Sep 24, 1999 Open Mexican border invites drug trafficking
    Bill Bradley Sep 20, 1999 Candidate drug use matters; admits pot but no cocaine
    George W. Bush Aug 30, 1999 Full background checks on drug use for all appointees
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Admits pot use; but it’s none of your business
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Crime rate soared in 70s Drug War like in 30s Prohibition
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Replace costs of enforcement with costs of addiction
    George W. Bush Aug 22, 1999 Parents make up for past by warning kids against drugs
    Harry Browne Jul 31, 1999 Legalization removes the rebellious appeal of drugs
    Harry Browne Jul 31, 1999 Increased govt monitoring does nothing to reduce drug use
    John McCain Mar 18, 1999 $1B for detection equipment for more border interdiction
    John McCain Mar 18, 1999 Mexico: balancing act between free trade & stopping drugs
    Harry Browne Feb 19, 1999 Bank profiles aimed at drug dealers will fail
    John McCain Feb 11, 1999 Restrict methadone treatment programs
    Al Gore Feb 8, 1999 Drug war is winnable by universal participation & commitment
    Al Gore Feb 8, 1999 Drug efforts are beginning to pay off; we must do more
    Al Gore Feb 8, 1999 Good economy means redoubling our efforts against drugs
    Al Gore Feb 8, 1999 Community disconnectedness is a source of drug problems
    Al Gore Feb 8, 1999 Drug Control Strategy: More $, more enforcement, more TV ads
    George W. Bush Dec 31, 1998 Supports tough drug laws as well as drug education programs.
    George W. Bush Dec 31, 1998 Encourages abstinence from tobacco, drugs or alcohol.
    Harry Browne Jul 13, 1998 We can’t win the Drug War; escalating makes it worse.
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Stricter penalties; stricter enforcement
    Al Gore Mar 23, 1998 After-school programs prevent most drug use
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 “Just Say No” is ignored by urban kids
    Bill Bradley Jul 25, 1996 Voted against more funds for int’l narcotics control
    Alan Keyes Jul 2, 1996 Increase penalties for selling drugs
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Pardon non-violent drug offendors to free prison space
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Govt has no Constitutional authority to prohibit any drugs
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 War on Drugs is a crusade against victimless crimes
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Marijuana is not unconditionally evil; allow medical use
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Truth is a casualty in the War on Drugs

    Background on Education

      Education Buzzwords

    • Social Promotion: Candidates debate whether students should advance a grade merely to keep up with their peer group. 90% of K-12 students are promoted (10% per year are retained).
    • Teacher Testing: Current law is that states certify teachers and decide what their requirements are; there are currently no national standards nor testing.
    • Teacher Pay: K-12 Teachers’ salaries average $34,200; college instructors average $63,000; compared to $50,700 for similarly educated non-teachers. Public school teachers earn 25% to 100% more than private school teachers.
    • School Prayer: Current law is that schools allow religious groups to organize on school grounds as if they are any club. Schools are not allowed to conduct prayers at the beginning of school, but neither are they allowed to stop a student from praying.
    • Bilingual Education: Schools may conduct classes in Spanish or other languages using federal ‘Title VII’ funds, which totaled $380 million last year (1% of total spending). 13% of K-12 students speak a language other than English at home.
    • DOE: The Department of Education spent $38 billion last year (2% of the federal budget). But federal spending only accounts for 9% of education spending; most of the annual $600 billion comes from state & local sources.

    Background documents


    Headlines on Education
    Al Gore Feb 23, 2000 Supports Goals 2000 & standards-based movement
    Bill Bradley Feb 23, 2000 Measure performance; close lowest-performing schools
    George W. Bush Feb 23, 2000 Freedom & flexibility in return for high standards & results
    John McCain Feb 23, 2000 Against nationally imposed standards & funding strings
    Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Teach democratic principles & citizenship in schools
    Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Separation of school & state: No Ten Commandments
    Bill Bradley Jan 26, 2000 400,000 more in Head Start; 2,000 more after-school programs
    George W. Bush Jan 26, 2000 Texas school record is improving, with many minorities
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 “Lifetime education” from birth to every life stage
    Alan Keyes Jan 16, 2000 Replace the Department of Education with parental control
    George W. Bush Jan 16, 2000 Expand character education via federal funding
    George W. Bush Jan 16, 2000 Local control and accountability will prevent failure
    Al Gore Jan 13, 2000 “Revolutionary plan”: 50% more for public schools
    Bill Bradley Jan 13, 2000 Education excellence begins with 60,000 great new teachers
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Separate school and state
    Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 End federal funding of education
    Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 Improve schools by taking on the unions & special interests
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 2000 Major investment in education related to people’s lives
    Al Gore Jan 4, 2000 Education plan: $115B over 10 years
    Bill Bradley Jan 4, 2000 Education plan: $90B over 10 years
    Al Gore Dec 23, 1999 $5B/year for universal preschool for 3- & 4-year-olds
    Al Gore Dec 18, 1999 Equal opportunity can be achieved with school reform
    Al Gore Dec 18, 1999 Hire 2M teachers over next 10 years
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Public school misalign authority and responsibility
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 State should enforce standards, not micromanage schools
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Zero toleration policy for discipline problems in schools
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Effective curriculum comes from clear standards
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Replace “English Only” with “English Plus” Spanish
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Arkansas project: broaden experiences for children
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Pushed teacher testing in Arkansas
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 AR ed reform: mandate kindergarten, no social promotion
    Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Reading projects offer tutoring & improve test score
    Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 $50M for more art teachers & art programs
    Alan Keyes Dec 7, 1999 Use bully pulpit to advocate prayer, not coerce it
    George W. Bush Dec 7, 1999 If poor kids don’t learn, give school funds to parents
    George W. Bush Dec 7, 1999 Develop tests locally - no national tests
    John McCain Dec 7, 1999 Teach virtues in all schools
    John McCain Nov 22, 1999 Enlist retirees for tutoring
    Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Schools went wrong when judges & feds got involved
    Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Block grants to states with all federal education funds
    Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Federal role in science & scholarships; not grade schools
    John McCain Oct 29, 1999 Good teachers should earn more than bad lawyers
    Bill Bradley Oct 28, 1999 Feds should fulfill special ed commitments
    Bill Bradley Oct 28, 1999 Scholarships & loans to create 60,000 new teachers
    Bill Bradley Oct 28, 1999 Spirit of experimentation is solution to urban schools
    Pat Buchanan Oct 25, 1999 Ed Dept should test the marketplace instead of testing kids
    Bill Bradley Oct 8, 1999 $400M per year for community colleges for tech & jobs
    Bill Bradley Oct 8, 1999 $200 per month stipends to elderly mentors
    George W. Bush Oct 6, 1999 Praise and reward successful schools; shame failures
    George W. Bush Oct 5, 1999 Expand Education Savings Accounts to $5000 per year
    Hillary Clinton Sep 28, 1999 Kids need decent schools to learn
    George W. Bush Sep 3, 1999 Shift $7B from Title I to low-income schools
    George W. Bush Aug 27, 1999 Evolution & creationism both valid; let states decide
    John McCain Aug 27, 1999 Decisions on teaching evolution should be made locally
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Government educates our children badly
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Let people who care run our schools instead of government
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Solemn vow never to abandon our public schools
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Hold kids to high standards, starting at home
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Address teacher shortage with salary increases
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Teachers need more peer consulting & more recognition
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Social promotion cheats our children
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 More after-school; smaller classes
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Reduce size of schools; and modernize
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Read to young kids 20-30 minutes daily
    John McCain Jul 2, 1999 Help unqualified teachers find other lines of work
    John McCain Jul 2, 1999 Supports tax-free savings accounts for education expenses
    John McCain Jul 2, 1999 Supports “Reading Excellence”; and rewarding good schools
    John McCain Jul 2, 1999 Supports at-risk programs; homeless ed.; anti-drop-out ed.
    Pat Buchanan Jul 2, 1999 Replace Dept. of Education with states & parents
    John McCain Jun 14, 1999 Internet access, with filters, at every school & library
    John McCain Jun 14, 1999 Merit pay & competency testing for teachers
    Pat Buchanan Jun 11, 1999 For school prayer; against multiculturalism
    Al Gore Jun 1, 1999 Reduce class sizes; make college savings plans
    Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 End bilingualism; end “hyphenated-Americans”
    John McCain May 24, 1999 Let local school boards decide hiring and spending
    John McCain May 24, 1999 Ed-ACT Bill: college plans; language proficiency
    Al Gore May 17, 1999 Education is best anti-poverty, anti-discrimination program
    Al Gore May 17, 1999 $10K “Teacher Corps” bonus; hire & test teachers
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Connect every school to the Internet
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Smaller classrooms with “schools within schools”
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 National Tuition Savings program to send kids to college
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Test teachers; remove failing tenured teachers
    Al Gore May 15, 1999 More pre-school, more after-school care
    Al Gore May 15, 1999 End social promotion; turn around failing schools
    Al Gore May 15, 1999 More student loans & grants; make 2 years of college free
    Al Gore May 15, 1999 Make schools violence-free and drug-free
    Al Gore May 15, 1999 Lifelong Learning Savings Accounts
    Ralph Nader May 12, 1999 Kick Channel One & commercialism out of class
    Rudy Giuliani Apr 30, 1999 Replace Board of Ed with appointed commissioner
    George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Establish standards, then let school districts meet them
    George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Results-oriented systems: OK to link funding to performance
    George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Teachers’ unions obstacle to school innovation
    George W. Bush Mar 31, 1999 Use phonics to keep kids reading at grade level.
    George W. Bush Mar 2, 1999 Help failing students pass - without social promotion
    Alan Keyes Jan 7, 1999 Sex education should be abstinence-based.
    Alan Keyes Jan 7, 1999 The Constitution does not forbid prayer in schools.
    Alan Keyes Jan 7, 1999 We need prayer in schools and by educators.
    Hillary Clinton Sep 17, 1998 Arts education is needed in our schools
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Send urban kids to boarding school communities
    Howard Phillips Sep 16, 1996 Close down Dept of Education, Feds should play no role
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 No School Prayer Amendment
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Remove the federal government from education entirely
    Alan Keyes Feb 23, 1996 Government corrupts higher education
    Alan Keyes Feb 23, 1996 College tuition rises due to taxpayer subsidies
    Bill Bradley Sep 26, 1995 Voted for National Service & summer youth programs
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Teaching non-academic topics is cause of declining SATs
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Importance of education no reason for govt control
    Bill Bradley Jul 27, 1994 Voted against school prayer; for condom distribution
    Howard Phillips Aug 7, 1993 Separate education from state, or it’s establishing religion

    Background on Environment
      Global Warming
    • Greenhouse gases: Atmospheric gases which keep heat in, like greenhouse glass does. The most common greenhouse gas (GHG) is carbon dioxide (CO2), which comes from burning gasoline, wood, oil, etc. The evidence of rising CO2 levels is undisputed; the political dispute centers on how much of the rise is attributable to human activities versus how much is natural climatic fluctuation.
    • Global Warming: Increase in worldwide temperature due to excess emissions of greenhouse gases. A few degrees rise in temperature, in theory, would cause rising sea levels, more extreme weather, and climate change around the world. The evidence of rising temperatures is undisputed; the political dispute centers on and whether it will change the climate and whether we can or should do something about it.
    • Climate Change Treaty: The basic international treaty on reducing greenhouse gas emissions was signed by the US and 182 other countries in 1992. It set up a ‘framework’ for later ‘protocols.’ Also known as the Rio Treaty or Greenhouse Gas Treaty.
    • Kyoto Protocol: The follow-up to the Climate Change Treaty which sets GHG reduction targets for the US and other developed countries. Completed in 1998, the US has not yet signed (Argentina is the largest economy to have signed). This is politically controversial because it would require the US to cut CO2 emissions, which is potentially costly.
      Endangered Species
    • Endangered Species Act (ESA): 1973 law prohibiting activities that harm endangered plants or animals or their habitats. Which species are threatened & endangered are listed or ‘delisted’ by the Secretaries of Interior & Commerce. The controversy comes from limitations on private property to protect one species.
    • Takings: The federal government is allowed to take private property when it serves the public interest (via ‘eminent domain’) but must pay fair market value. When the ESA regulates private property use (such as disallowing development), the value is decreased even though the property is not fully taken. The ‘takings’ controversy concerns how much the government should pay to property owners when their property is only partially taken.
      Pollution Control vs. Cost Control
    • The Clean Air Act: (CAA) regulates industrial smokestacks and other sources of smog, acid rain, and other air pollutants. The CAA uses numerous market incentives, including ‘pollution permits’ that are traded on open markets, to minimize costs.
    • The Clean Water Act: (CWA) regulates ‘point-source’ (sewage pipes) and ‘non-point-source’ (land and road runoff) water pollution. The EPA’s approach since the early 1990s is ‘watershed-based,’ which means cooperating across political boundaries.
    • CAFE standard: The ‘Corporate Average Fuel Economy’ requires that all automobile manfacturers maintain an average of 28 miles per gallon (mpg) for all vehicles sold.
    • Command-and-control: Standardized regulations with central enforcement (usually by EPA), as opposed to market-based incentives.
      Federal Lands
      The federal government owns 27% of all US land (more than the combined area of Alaska, Texas, & California).
    1. BLM: The Bureau of Land Management owns 270 million acres of cattle grazing land.
    2. USFS: The US Forest Service owns 185 million acres of timber land.
    3. FWS: The Fish & Wildlife Service owns 90 million acres of waterways and surrounding lands.
    4. NPS: The National Park Service owns 75 million acres of national parks and national rivers.
    5. States: State and local governments own 200 million acres of land (another 9% of total US land area).
      Land Use Buzzwords
    • Devolution: Some candidates believe that land use decisions should ‘devolve’ from the federal government to state or local government, to encourage community involvement.
    • Wise Use: A code word which means ‘stop federal land use restrictions.’ It comes from the Forest Service’s founding doctrines, which say that wise land use includes commercial use plus recreational use.
    • Land Trusts: Privately-held land which has restrictions on development (e.g., wildlife sanctuaries).
    • Suburban Sprawl: Uncontrolled development that fosters automobile usage rather than mass transit.
    • Urban Redevelopment: Restoring inner-city ‘blighted’ communities via ‘empowerment zones,’ etc.
    • Brownfields: Locating industrial development on former waste sites (versus wide-open ‘greenfields’).
    • Superfund: EPA cleanup of toxic waste sites.
    Amendment V to the US Constitution
    ...nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.(1791)


    (click a book cover for a review or
    other books on Foreign Policy from Amazon.com)

    Headlines on Foreign Policy
    Rudy Giuliani Feb 17, 2000 Iraq: More inspections; counter OPEC’s oil production cuts
    Alan Keyes Feb 15, 2000 Routine military intervention is wrong
    George W. Bush Feb 15, 2000 Russia: Work together to dismantle nuclear weapons
    John McCain Feb 15, 2000 Overthrow “rogue” governments to keep Americans safe
    John McCain Feb 15, 2000 Our conscience influences US intervention, as in Rwanda
    Al Gore Jan 26, 2000 Chechnya: Keep aid that helps US; cut off aid that helps war
    Bill Bradley Jan 26, 2000 Iraq: Isolate Saddam diplomatically; loosen grip on oil
    George W. Bush Jan 26, 2000 Pressure Saudis to keep oil prices low
    Pat Buchanan Jan 24, 2000 Elian should stay in US; father is speaking under duress
    Alan Keyes Jan 14, 2000 Panama Canal: Keep US in; keep China Out
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 End foreign aid to individual countries as well as agencies
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Mideast: End meddling with embargoes & peace negotiations
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Exit UN; extend diplomatic relations to all countries
    Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 Foreign aid is unconstitutional
    Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 Reduce federal foreign policy role
    Alan Keyes Jan 10, 2000 Africa: No money for AIDS, because money won’t cure AIDS
    George W. Bush Jan 10, 2000 Cuba: No trade, since investments prop up Castro regime
    George W. Bush Jan 10, 2000 Africa: Rally world to help AIDS, but not with US funds
    John McCain Jan 10, 2000 Africa: Money for AIDS would be lost to corruption
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 2000 Move towards new post-Cold War stability & mentality
    George W. Bush Jan 7, 2000 Honor Panama Canal treaty, but keep canal open
    John McCain Jan 7, 2000 Concern over Chechnya spreads to Caucasus oil reserves
    Pat Buchanan Jan 6, 2000 Struggle against emerging world government
    Bill Bradley Jan 5, 2000 Russia: Missed opportunity to disarm & communicate
    John McCain Jan 4, 2000 Russia: Sanctions until Putin exits Chechnya
    Al Gore Jan 1, 2000 Strong defense for world leader; tie defense to other issues
    George W. Bush Dec 23, 1999 Focus on Big Three: Russia, China, & India
    Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 Pres. Bush did too little for Russia; Clinton did not
    Pat Buchanan Dec 17, 1999 Iraq: Sanctions sow seeds of future terrorism
    Pat Buchanan Dec 17, 1999 End all sanctions that hurt innocent people
    Pat Buchanan Dec 17, 1999 Cuba: Siege mentality is pillar of power; end embargo
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 America should speak loudly and carry a big stick
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 America should act as the leader of the free world
    George W. Bush Dec 3, 1999 Texas governorship provides foreign policy experience
    George W. Bush Nov 18, 1999 Foreign policy with a touch of iron & a sharpened sword
    Hillary Clinton Nov 11, 1999 Extend peace treaties to Palestinians, Syrians & Lebanese
    Hillary Clinton Nov 11, 1999 Smartest strategic choice is peace
    Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 Against paying UN until they reform
    Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 Fostered policy of withholding UN funds; UN wastes US taxes
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Mantle of leadership means responding to violence abroad
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Intervention requires national interest, by our values
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Pay UN dues, as leader of the world
    Bill Bradley Oct 28, 1999 East Timor worked; use UN instead of US elsewhere
    Hillary Clinton Oct 19, 1999 Puerto Rico: Stop using live ammo at Vieques
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Russia: Offer EU membership instead of encirclement
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Israel: Provide for self-defense, but concede land for peace
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Palestine: a flag, a land, a capital in Jerusalem
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Iran & Iraq: Abandon dual containment strategy
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Japan: share burdens(defense) & benefits(trade) equitably
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Korea: Replace US troops with Koreans
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Dissolve Asian security treaties, they’ll defend themselves
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Puerto Rico: No statehood; eventual independence
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Quebec: Offer seceding provinces alliances or statehood
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Latin America: Support Monroe Doctrine but exit Rio Pact
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 East Europe: Focus on democracy instead of expanding NATO
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Base alliances on their view of US; not on democracy status
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Russia: Stop humiliation now to avoid a 21st century war
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Poland: NATO membership implies nuclear defense
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Independence, not isolationism
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 War guarantees to Poland kept Hitler from attacking USSR
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Hitler was no threat to US; sought mastery of Europe only
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Kuwait War benefited Iran; not US
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Globalist Elites have not yielded their empire
    John McCain Oct 5, 1999 IMF’s Russia policies bad, but agency is OK
    Pat Buchanan Oct 2, 1999 Practice “masterly inactivity,” not “entangling alliances”
    Pat Buchanan Sep 20, 1999 Endorses Arafat as Palestine Pres., despite “repulsiveness”
    Pat Buchanan Sep 20, 1999 Push US foreign policy toward isolationism
    Pat Buchanan Sep 12, 1999 Logistical help OK in East Timor, but no ground troops
    Pat Buchanan Sep 12, 1999 Israeli lobby should not dominate Mideast policy
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Panama Canal: Keep US in; keep China out
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Bring US troops home from 100 countries overseas
    Bill Bradley Aug 17, 1999 Puerto Rico: Support their expressed will; provide more aid
    George W. Bush Jul 23, 1999 Israel: Recognize Jerusalem as capital
    Harry Browne Jun 3, 1999 Military involvement often fails even when US “wins”.
    Harry Browne Jun 3, 1999 Illegal war actions set precedents for more future wars
    Alan Keyes May 28, 1999 Call to account those responsible for Chinese espionage
    Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 Withdraw from UN; Kyoto Treaty; Rome Treaty
    Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 End foreign aid; withdraw from most of IMF
    John McCain May 20, 1999 Urge Japan to open economy to ensure Asian recovery
    Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 Foster middle-class abroad; focus on 5 key countries
    Harry Browne May 15, 1999 Moral responsibilty implies constant war.
    John McCain Apr 30, 1999 Clinton abandoned framework of “assertive multilateralism”
    John McCain Apr 30, 1999 Korea: ease starvation, but avoid war during death throes
    John McCain Feb 4, 1999 Palestine: Against declaration of statehood
    Alan Keyes Jan 7, 1999 If the UN undermines US sovereignty, we should quit.
    Bill Bradley Dec 15, 1998 US has an obligation to lead the world.
    Al Gore Dec 7, 1998 Supported continuing 1998 air strikes in Iraq
    Al Gore Dec 7, 1998 Supported Bush’s 1991 bombing of Iraq
    George W. Bush Oct 1, 1998 Mexico: Free trade, but with more border patrols
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Pay dues to UN after UN reforms
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Cuba: No diplomatic and trade relations
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Russia: No aid; no meddling; just free trade.
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Replace all government aid with free trade
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Avoid arms trade; promote peace by free trade
    Alan Keyes Jan 23, 1996 Rwanda: Humanitarian grounds 150x more than in Bosnia
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Govt’s role is to discourage attacks; not police the world

    Background on Free Trade & Immigration
    International Trade Buzzwords
  • ‘Fast-Track’ means authorizing the President to sign trade deals with a single yes-or-no Congressional vote after only limited debate. Supporting Fast-Track implies supporting free trade.
  • ‘Fair Trade’ means placing restrictions on imports based on environmental, labor, or other concerns. Supporting Fair Trade implies the speaker is against free trade.
  • ‘Trade Deficits’ mean that the US imports more than we export to a particular country. Concern over trade deficits implies supporting trade restrictions against Mexico, Japan, and East Asia, with whom the US has large trade deficits.
    NAFTA
  • The North American Free Trade Agreement of 1994 establishes a free-trade zone between the US, Canada, and Mexico.
  • A ‘free trade zone’ means that goods can cross the border in either direction without tariffs or taxes of any kind.
  • Canada is the largest trading partner of the US, accounting for over 25% of both our imports and exports.
  • Mexico & Japan account for about 15% each; Europe combined for about 20%; and East Asia combined for about 15%.
  • In 1994, President Clinton invited Chile to join NAFTA as the next step toward a Free Trade Zone for the Americas.
    GATT & WTO
  • The World Trade Organization is an international organization intended to reduce trade barriers, formed in 1995.
  • The General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs is the international treaty which preceded the WTO's formation; it began in 1947.
  • The ‘Uruguay Round’ was the most recently completed round of GATT negotiations, completed in 1994.
  • Negotiations to start a new ‘Round’ took place in Seattle in Dec. 1999, but were disrupted by riots.
  • WTO members (which includes the US and most industrialized countries) grant each other ‘MFN’ or Most Favored Nation status, which means minimal import tariffs.
    ‘Anti-Dumping Laws’
  • Dumping: A country sells goods in the US at costs lower than they are sold in the home country, presumably with the intent of capturing market share.
  • Countervailing Duties: The US imposes import tariffs -- often 100% or more -- on goods which the government determines have been dumped.
  • In the last 4 years, the federal government found dumping in 107 cases, mostly steel from Asia but also on European bananas, and imposed countervailing duties.
    Immigration
  • The US admits about 660,000 legal immigrants per year (1998 figures).
  • The Immigration Act of 1990 allows for 480,000 immigrants with family in the US; 140,000 immigrants in needed employment fields; and the rest under per-country limits and diversity limits.
  • Foreign-born people accounted for 8% of the US population in the 1990 census; in the decades prior to 1930, the figure was 13%.
  • About 5 million illegal aliens reside in the US (1996 figures).
  • 55% of all illegal aliens come from Mexico. (Other Latin American countries account for another 20%).
  • 40% of all illegal aliens live in California. (TX, NY, FL, and IL account for the next 40%).
  • The illegal alien population is growing by about 275,000 each year.
  • The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) runs the Border Patrol as well as interior enforcement.

    Headlines on Free Trade & Immigration
    George W. Bush Feb 28, 2000 Against WTO on foreign sales corp (for offshore tax breaks)
    John McCain Feb 28, 2000 Against foreign sales corporations (offshore tax breaks)
    Alan Keyes Feb 15, 2000 Entering WTO gave away part of our sovereignty
    Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Replace WTO & NAFTA with uniformly low tariffs
    Alan Keyes Jan 26, 2000 Out of WTO: no legislation without representation
    Al Gore Jan 17, 2000 Immigrants from communist Cuba are different
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 All refugees should be granted rights to stay in US
    Alan Keyes Jan 13, 2000 Separate naturalization (legal) from border patrols
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Let in the huddled masses
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Open trade policy without NAFTA or WTO
    Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 Tighten borders and subsidies to illegal immigrants
    Al Gore Jan 9, 2000 Open Europe & Japan to genetically-modified farm products
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 2000 Rely on the WTO to export beef to Europe
    Alan Keyes Jan 7, 2000 Banks and American clout should help farmers
    George W. Bush Jan 7, 2000 Sow free trade and farmers will reap
    John McCain Jan 7, 2000 Substitute trade treaties for protectionism
    Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 WTO talks will continue, with labor & environment input
    Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 WTO requires Japan & Europe to deal with our trade issues
    Al Gore Dec 14, 1999 Open markets with safeguards for labor and environment
    Alan Keyes Dec 13, 1999 WTO allows dictators to decide our future - US out
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 A free market promotes dreams and individuality
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Import fees are not the answer to foreign competition
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 More border guards to compassionately turn away Mexicans
    Alan Keyes Dec 7, 1999 WTO is not representative; hence unconstitutional
    Ralph Nader Dec 7, 1999 “Battle of Seattle” convinced president to reconsider WTO
    Ralph Nader Dec 7, 1999 Global trade concentrates power & homogenizes the globe
    Ralph Nader Dec 7, 1999 WTO’s “trade uber alles” hurts environment, health, & safety
    Pat Buchanan Dec 2, 1999 With Seattle WTO protestors against loss of sovereignty
    Pat Buchanan Dec 1, 1999 WTO is first step toward world government
    Pat Buchanan Dec 1, 1999 Trade shouldn’t trump environment, human rights, or security
    Al Gore Oct 15, 1999 Make trade work for working families
    George W. Bush Oct 15, 1999 Against the spirit of CA Proposition 187
    Bill Bradley Oct 13, 1999 More truck inspectors at Mexican border, within NAFTA
    Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 “Good for global business” isn’t necessarily good for US
    Pat Buchanan Oct 2, 1999 Reduce dependence on trade; support Monroe Doctrine
    Pat Buchanan Sep 20, 1999 Globalists are wrong; dumping destroys towns
    Pat Buchanan Sep 20, 1999 Most pressing foreign policy crisis: illegal immigration
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Withdraw from NAFTA, WTO, UN, IMF, & Federal Reserve
    Ralph Nader Aug 17, 1999 A growing movement: international labor rights
    George W. Bush Aug 6, 1999 Guest workers, maybe; citizenship waiting period, yes
    Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 NAFTA, WTO, and world trade solve economic problems
    Pat Buchanan Jul 27, 1999 Use troops to stop illegal immigration
    Pat Buchanan Jul 2, 1999 “Economic Nationalism”: trade only when it helps US
    Hillary Clinton Jun 17, 1999 Globalization should not substitute for humanization
    George W. Bush Jun 12, 1999 The fearful build walls; the confident demolish them.
    Pat Buchanan Jun 11, 1999 Global Economy erodes US sovereignty
    Pat Buchanan Jun 11, 1999 “America First”: Tariffs; reciprocal trade; anti-dumping
    Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Secure our porous borders; teach immigrants English
    Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Match 100% tariffs from Japan & China
    Pat Buchanan Jun 4, 1999 Supports banning Mexican trucks for US deliveries
    Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 NAFTA & GATT sold out America’s workers
    Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 Immigration “time out”; reduce to 250,000 per year
    George W. Bush May 26, 1999 NAFTA is good for Texas and good for Mexico
    John McCain May 20, 1999 Free trade with any country except security risks
    John McCain May 20, 1999 Retaliatory protectionism is a “murder-suicide pact”
    John McCain May 20, 1999 Chile in NAFTA is good, but Fast Track isn’t
    Al Gore May 14, 1999 Use Fast Track to encourage new markets
    Al Gore May 14, 1999 Free and fair trade means economic growth and jobs
    Al Gore Apr 21, 1999 Immigration leads to diversity and cultural tolerance
    Pat Buchanan Apr 21, 1999 Trade deficit is “tumor in intestines of US economy”
    John McCain Mar 18, 1999 Mexico: balancing act between free trade & stopping drugs
    John McCain Mar 18, 1999 NAFTA has had unambiguously positive impact on US
    Pat Buchanan Mar 16, 1999 Support Steel Recovery Act to stop dumping
    John McCain Mar 15, 1999 No more ballot initiatives against immigration
    George W. Bush Jan 27, 1999 Support NAFTA by improving Mexican border
    Al Gore Nov 16, 1998 Protectionism only protects us from prosperity
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 More help for legal immigrants when immigrating & once here
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Pro-NAFTA, pro-GATT, pro-MFN, pro-Fast Track
    Alan Keyes Apr 17, 1998 Tariffs make foreigners share burden of US government
    George W. Bush Apr 6, 1998 Free & fair trade is key to economic future
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Smarter workers needed to compete in global market
    Alan Keyes Jul 2, 1996 Expand legal immigration; curtail illegal immigration
    Bill Bradley May 2, 1996 Pro-immigrant: public assistance; school funds; less INS
    Bill Bradley May 2, 1996 Anti-immigrant: More Border Patrol; more info-sharing.
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Russia: No aid; no meddling; just free trade.
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Replace all government aid with free trade
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Maintain open borders; end war on immigration
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Ease immigration laws; no Official English
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 No import tariffs, regardless of human rights
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Cuba: Lift the trade embargo
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Against NAFTA and WTO
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Free trade guarantees peace better than military
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 “Trade aggression” meaningless, since both sides benefit
    Bill Bradley May 9, 1995 For GATT, NAFTA, & Fast Track; No retaliatory sanctions
    Howard Phillips May 5, 1995 No more foolish bailouts, like Mexico’s
    Howard Phillips Nov 5, 1993 Giving up sovereignty is unconstitutional & dangerous

    Background on Government Reform
      Reinventing Government
  • ‘Reinvention’ has been the official policy of the federal government since 1993. The basic concepts are:
  • Government should steer rather than row (provide a framework for non-government action rather than operate institutions).
  • Government should focus on outcomes (desired results) and needs of customers (service recipients), rather than inputs (dollars and jobs) and needs of bureaucracies (rules).
  • Government should decentralize and address problems from the lowest level of government possible;
  • Public agencies should compete with private agencies, and should adopt a market orientation;
  • Government which work betters also costs less.
      Term Limits
  • In March 1998, the Supreme Court let stand term limits for state lawmakers, but previously ruled that establishing such restrictions nationally would require amending the Constitution. Efforts to limit federal Congressional terms died out in early 1997.
  • 18 states have laws limiting politicians' terms, and in 1998, more than 200 state legislators were forced to retire.
  • The latest push is for term limits for judges. The purpose would be to limit ‘Judicial activism,’ which means establishing new laws from the bench rather than from Congress.
      Balanced Budget Amendment
  • In 1998, the Senate defeated by one vote a Balanced Budget Amendment (BBA) to the Constitution. It would have mandated an end to deficit spending unless 60% of Congress voted to override.
  • State budget balancing requirements typically only apply to the operating budget (ongoing expenses), but not to capital expenditures (one-time investments). The proposed BBA restricts both.
  • The ‘Line Item Veto’ would be another Constitutional Amendment intended to reduce budget growth, by allowing the President to selectively veto particular spending items.
  • ‘Corporate welfare’ restrictions are often addressed in the context of a BBA or Line Item Veto. However, most federal corporate subsidies are embedded in the tax code rather than in the spending side of the budget.
      Campaign Finance Reform
  • ‘Soft money’ means donations to the national party rather than to a particular candidate ($193 million in the 1998 election; $55 million so far in 1999).
  • ‘Hard money’ is subject to less reform proposals -- it means cash donations to a particular candidate, which must be fully reported to the FEC.
  • ‘PAC money’ means donations to political action committees, which is used for issue ads which typically favor one candidate, but do not count in federal spending limits.
  • Individuals may donate a maximum of $1000 to one candidate, but may donate any amount of soft money.
  • Candidates who volutarily limit their campaign spending qualify for federal matching funds of about $100 million.
      Devolution to States
  • ‘Unfunded Mandates’ mean that the federal government requires states to undertake activities without providing funding for them.
  • ‘Block Grants’ mean that the federal government gives states funds to spend as each state sees fit.
  • ‘Devolution’ means the federal government should close departments and agencies, transfer functions to the states, or otherwise yield control over policy which is now federally controlled. The philosophy behind devolving power to the states is based in the 10th Amendment. It is currently appiled primarily to welfare reform.
      Amendment X to the US Constitution
    The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited to it by the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. (1791)

    Headlines on Government Reform
    Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Empower citizens via accurate information from govt
    Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Concentrated power in business & govt weakens rights
    Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Public campaign finance; 12-year term limits
    Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Corporate government has hijacked political leadership
    Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Public election financing, with free TV & radio time
    Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Corporations wield power without accountability
    Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Reinvent democracy via new tools for citizen empowerment
    Ralph Nader Feb 17, 2000 Concentrated party power weakens democracy
    Alan Keyes Feb 15, 2000 Campaigns: No union $, no corporate $, no foreign $
    George W. Bush Feb 15, 2000 No corporate or union soft money.
    John McCain Feb 15, 2000 Fight iron triangle: special interests, money, & legislation
    Hillary Clinton Feb 11, 2000 Soft money ban & independent ad ban for Senate campaign
    Hillary Clinton Feb 6, 2000 New Democrat: Government is not the solution to all problems
    George W. Bush Jan 26, 2000 Pay for tax cuts with cash, not corporate loopholes
    John McCain Jan 26, 2000 Close corporate loopholes; veto pork-barrel spending
    John McCain Jan 25, 2000 No term limits; they throw away the good with the bad
    Alan Keyes Jan 13, 2000 “Dollar vote” only if you can “ballot vote”
    George W. Bush Jan 13, 2000 Meet basic priorities, & return leftovers to taxpayers
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Remove both campaign spending limits and donation limits
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Reducing government promotes personal responsibility
    George W. Bush Jan 10, 2000 Agrees to no negative ads; stop tearing each other down
    Al Gore Jan 8, 2000 Reinvention cut Defense while investing in social programs
    Al Gore Jan 8, 2000 Public financing of elections and debates lead to trust
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 2000 Money corrupts democracy
    John McCain Jan 7, 2000 Campaign reform that’s best for country, not for GOP
    George W. Bush Jan 6, 2000 No legislating from the bench-judges should just interpret
    John McCain Jan 6, 2000 Take away soft money & “hurt the unions bad”
    Al Gore Jan 5, 2000 Campaign reform: full public financing, no soft money
    Bill Bradley Jan 5, 2000 Take special interests out of politics by banning soft money
    Alan Keyes Dec 26, 1999 Wife Jocelyn’s issues: anti-poverty & anti-abortion
    Bill Bradley Dec 16, 1999 Campaign reform equals government reform
    Bill Bradley Dec 16, 1999 Grassroots efforts are more powerful than Congress
    John McCain Dec 16, 1999 Special interests try to buy influence
    John McCain Dec 16, 1999 Money corrupts politics, and soft money corrupts absolutely
    Alan Keyes Dec 7, 1999 Campaign reforms: unconstitutional “incumbency protection”
    Alan Keyes Dec 7, 1999 Unlimited contributions, but only by people, & publicized
    John McCain Dec 7, 1999 Drain the big money swamp to kill lobbyist mosquitoes
    Pat Buchanan Dec 1, 1999 Terms limits and no pensions for members of Congress
    Pat Buchanan Dec 1, 1999 Require that 75% of donations come from candidate’s district
    Pat Buchanan Dec 1, 1999 Administration staff take oath: never work for foreign gov’t
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Has supported bills like McCain-Feingold for 20 years
    Bill Bradley Oct 28, 1999 Campaign reform needs support from people, business, & Pres.
    Pat Buchanan Oct 25, 1999 Restore constitutional division of federal & state functions
    George W. Bush Oct 3, 1999 Favors Tort Reform to make it harder to sue corporations
    John McCain Sep 20, 1999 Influence peddling helps the Chinese Army
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Close NEA, NPR, CPB: funding “good works” corrupts them
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Abolish FEC; unlimited & disclosed campaign contributions
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Cut the federal government down to constitutional size
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Legislation is only for Congress, not federal agencies
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 FEC reforms have corrupted politics: abolish FEC
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Waco resulted from FBI’s predictable abuse of power
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Govt abuses of privacy results from power WE granted them
    Hillary Clinton Aug 4, 1999 Give big states a big slice of federal pie
    John McCain Aug 4, 1999 End sugar subsidy; corporate welfare at its worst
    Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Campaign reform: Free TV; mail-in voting; Voter Leave.
    Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Ban soft money; it breaches “one person, one vote”
    George W. Bush Jul 5, 1999 Supports tweaking campaign finance rules
    Pat Buchanan Jul 2, 1999 Enforce 10th Amendment; give federal powers to states
    John McCain Jun 30, 1999 Politicans poll, posture, & influence-peddle
    George W. Bush Jun 25, 1999 No lawsuits on good-faith acts
    Hillary Clinton Jun 17, 1999 We need strong and efficient governments
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 No new regulations; restrict unfunded mandates
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 Lobbying: Charge foreigners; 5-year ban on officials
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 Campaign Finance: limit outside $, PAC $, & corporate $
    Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 For Congress: yes term limits; no pensions; no franking
    Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Dismantle DOE, HUD, DOC, NEA, BLM, ATF, etc.
    Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 Dismantle federal agencies; give funds to taxpayers
    John McCain May 24, 1999 Supports Line-Item Veto and Balanced Budget
    Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 No PAC contributions; no “soft money” advertising
    Harry Browne May 16, 1999 So-called “Reforms” get incumbents re-elected
    Al Gore May 14, 1999 Continue “reinvention”, which has saved $137 billion.
    John McCain May 10, 1999 Campaign Finance: ban both labor union & corporate donations
    Ralph Nader Apr 14, 1999 States & the public should oppose corporate tax breaks
    Pat Buchanan Mar 2, 1999 Judiciary should interpret laws, not rewrite them
    Al Gore Jan 14, 1999 Decentralization builds faith in government
    Al Gore Jan 14, 1999 Customer Satisfaction Survey for feds
    Al Gore Jan 14, 1999 Performance-based pay for civil servants
    George W. Bush Jul 2, 1998 Term limits for state representatives and governors
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Supports term limits on Congress
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 National gov’t needed to balance corruption of local gov’t
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Politicians seeking press is OK if not flash over substance
    Alan Keyes Jul 2, 1996 Campaign reform: No $ limits; full disclosure
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Eliminate almost all Departments and agencies
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Supports term limits on House (6 yrs) & Senate (12 yrs)
    Howard Phillips Jan 19, 1996 Federal programs invade our privacy
    Howard Phillips Jan 19, 1996 Eliminate income tax & most federal taxes
    Bill Bradley Jan 16, 1996 Amendment: political spending is not free speech
    Bill Bradley Jan 16, 1996 To qualify for funding, candidates must debate
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Constitution gives people freedom FROM government
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Abolishing agencies only way to stop them from growing back
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Government Doesn’t Work
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Require shorter bills so legislators actually read them
    Howard Phillips Nov 5, 1993 When govt usurps power, we are accountable
    Howard Phillips Nov 18, 1992 Deconstruct the humanist-globalist welfare state

    Background on Gun Control
    Statistics on Gun Ownership
  • 40% of all US homes have guns
  • 81% of Americans say that gun control will be an important issue in determining which Congressional candidate to vote for.
  • 91% of Americans say that there should be at least minor restrictions on gun ownership;
  • 57% of Americans say that there should be major restrictions or a ban. Child-Safety Locks
  • In 1996, 140 children died after being accidentally shot.
  • About 1,500 children are hurt by guns every year.
  • "Trigger Locks" require entering a combination to use the gun (or some other locking method); they are intended to reduce inadvertent use by children or other unauthorized users. Background Checks
  • The "Gun-Show Loophole" means that there are no background checks when purchasing guns in a private transaction.
  • Guns sold at gun shows through dealers ARE subject to background checks; only those sold privately are not. Right to Bear Arms
  • The Supreme Court ruled in 1939, in a case called "US v. Miller," that the right to possess a gun is NOT protected under the 2nd amendment unless it's related to a well-regulated militia.
  • Since 1939, the Supreme Court has not heard any further 2nd amendment cases; so the Miller decision is considered "settled law" and is not subject to re-interpretation 60 years later.
  • Hence, gun control issues are the subject of Congressional legislation, not of constitutional protection. Amendment II to the US Constitution
    A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. (1791)

    (click a book cover for a review or
    other books on Gun issues from Amazon.com)

    Headlines on Gun Control
    Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Passed toughest gun control in 30 years; same for next 30
    Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 Gore was a conservative Congressman who voted with NRA
    Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 Register and license all handguns
    Bill Bradley Feb 18, 2000 Ban gun sales in residential neighborhoods
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Gun restrictions are unconstitutional
    Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 Repeal gun restrictions; concealed carry OK
    Al Gore Jan 8, 2000 Photo id’s for gun purchase; ban junk guns
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 2000 Register and license all handguns
    Al Gore Jan 5, 2000 Ban certain guns & “super-trace” all guns
    Al Gore Jan 5, 2000 Maximize gun control within what’s politically possible
    Bill Bradley Jan 5, 2000 Register & license all 65 million handguns
    Alan Keyes Dec 17, 1999 Teach high school students to use guns
    George W. Bush Dec 13, 1999 Best gun control is more prosecution & certain jail
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Supports gun ownership for protection and hunting
    Harry Browne Nov 21, 1999 Well-protected politicians misunderstand need for guns
    Harry Browne Nov 21, 1999 Your home is safer if there are guns in your neighborhood
    Harry Browne Nov 21, 1999 Criminals are not affected by gun-control laws
    Harry Browne Nov 21, 1999 Don’t let politicians decide our need for assault rifles
    Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Stop using heinous crimes to take away 2nd amendment rights
    Bill Bradley Sep 26, 1999 Stand up to the NRA
    George W. Bush Sep 21, 1999 $1.6M TX campaign, “Gun Crime Means Hard Time.”
    Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Guns controlled by citizens with no restrictions
    George W. Bush Aug 27, 1999 Raise legal age for guns to 21; ban certain ammo
    John McCain Aug 17, 1999 Ban cheap guns; require safety locks; for gun show checks
    John McCain Aug 17, 1999 Supports ban on certain assault weapons
    John McCain Aug 17, 1999 Voted against Brady Bill & assault weapon ban
    Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Ban Saturday Night Specials; plus other “common-sense”
    Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 For registration & licensing; against freely re-selling
    Hillary Clinton Jul 31, 1999 Tough gun control laws will keep guns out of wrong h
    Hillary Clinton Jul 15, 1999 Gun control protects our children
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Don’t water down sensible gun control legislation
    Al Gore Jun 28, 1999 Child-safety locks on guns & more restrictions
    George W. Bush Jun 28, 1999 No child-safety locks on guns; concealed carrying ok
    Al Gore Jun 18, 1999 Counter gun lobby with ‘family lobby’ to shield kids
    Bill Bradley Jun 18, 1999 Ban inexpensive “junk” handguns
    Bill Bradley Jun 18, 1999 Register guns; limit buyers to one per month
    George W. Bush Jun 18, 1999 No city lawsuits against gun manufacturers
    Al Gore Jun 17, 1999 Voted against some gun limitations while in Congress
    Alan Keyes Jun 14, 1999 Columbine killers lacked moral development - not gun laws
    Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Faithfully protects 2nd Amendment, except for felons
    Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Gun laws didn’t stop Littleton shootings
    Hillary Clinton Jun 4, 1999 Lock up guns; store ammo separately
    Al Gore May 21, 1999 Supports background checks at gun shows, in tie-breaker
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Supports Brady Law and ban on assault weapons
    Alan Keyes May 14, 1999 Gun control is an outcome of godless materialism
    Alan Keyes May 14, 1999 Control people’s passions - not the things they use
    John McCain May 10, 1999 Punish criminals who abuse 2nd Amendment rights
    George W. Bush May 1, 1999 Gun restrictions OK within basic right to own guns
    George W. Bush Apr 30, 1999 Gun show checks OK; ban guns near schools & kids
    George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Assault weapon OK; waiting period not OK
    George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Concealed Carry needed in our dangerous society
    Alan Keyes Jan 7, 1999 Against banning guns since that won’t end violence.
    Alan Keyes Jan 7, 1999 Supports right to bear arms for all types and uses of guns.
    George W. Bush Jul 2, 1998 Ban machine guns; maintain existing gun restrictions
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Repeal existing gun restrictions; penalize criminal use
    Alan Keyes Jul 2, 1996 No bans on legal firearms; allow concealed carry
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Repeal all gun laws; Bill of Rights is “literal”
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Prosecute crimes, not possession of weapons

    Background on Health Care
    HMOs & MANAGED CARE
  • Comprehensive national health care reform died in Congress in 1994 (after a report by a commission run by Hillary Clinton).
  • 16% of Americans (42 million people) have no health insurance (and hence must pay for health services in full, or receive hospital charity).
  • 14% of Americans receive some form of public health care or health insurance (70% have private health insurance).
  • 20% of Americans are members of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs). PATIENT’S BILL OF RIGHTS Congress and the Presidential candidates are debating a ‘Patient’s Bill of Rights’ which would establish rules of dealing with HMO managed care. The buzzwords in this debate are:
  • External Appeal: Patients cannot currently appeal an HMO’s decision to deny coverage, even if the HMO doctor agrees with the patient. The ‘Bill of Rights’ would establish some form of expert appeal board external to the HMO.
  • Medical Necessity: At issue is whether the doctor or the HMO management determines what is necessary. Determination of ‘necessity’ may become subject to expert review as well, or it may become measured against established standards of ‘generally accepted practices.’
  • Legal Liability: Patients would be granted the right to sue HMOs for medical costs and damages, which is not a right under current law.
  • Scope of Coverage: Some states regulate HMOs in ways similar to those described here; a ‘Bill of Rights’ could apply to them, to all HMOs, or to all patients. MEDICAID / MEDICARE
  • Medicare and Medicaid background is covered in theSocial Security section (but quotations are cross-referenced here). EUTHANASIA
  • The Supreme Court ruled unanimously in June 1997 that there is no constitutional right to euthanasia, but that states can allow euthanasia without federal intervention.
  • ‘Euthanasia’ means ‘good death’ in the context of terminal illness. Buzzwords:
  • Passive Euthanasia: Hastening death by withdrawing life support.
  • Active Euthanasia: Causing death in response to a request from that person. The best-known examples are by Dr. Jack Kevorkian, who was found guilty of 2nd degree murder in March 1999.
  • Physician Assisted Suicide: A physician supplies information and/or the means of committing suicide so that a patient can easily terminate their own life.
  • Involuntary Euthanasia: A synonym for murder; used by anti-euthanasia activists.
  • Right to Die: Establishing suicide as a civil right; used by pro-euthanasia activists. TOBACCO SETTLEMENT
  • In Nov. 1998, 46 states settled the cases they had filed against the tobacco companies. (The other 4 states had previously settled, on similar terms)
  • Now, the state legislatures are debating the best use of the settlement funds, which totals $246 billion to be paid over the next 25 years ($5 to $9 billion per year starting in April, 2000).

    (click a book cover for a review or other books on Health issues from Amazon.com)

    Headlines on Health Care
    Al Gore Feb 26, 2000 Drug companies block generic drugs & cheaper sales
    Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Private insurers won’t take AIDS patients; need Medicaid
    Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 We can give prescription help to elderly AND save Medicare
    Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 Pledges better health plan for every Medicaid patient
    Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 Help HIV-infected with Ryan White Act and health centers
    Bill Bradley Feb 15, 2000 “Outrageous scare tactics” on Medicare’s HIV treatment
    Bill Bradley Jan 26, 2000 Fought for longer maternity stays; will fight for more
    Al Gore Jan 17, 2000 Weighted averages don’t work in Medicaid world
    Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 All people on Medicaid should have a primary care physician
    John McCain Jan 17, 2000 Higher taxes on cigarettes
    Alan Keyes Jan 16, 2000 Health care choice will save money for long-term health care
    George W. Bush Jan 16, 2000 Tax-deductible long-term care insurance for retirement
    George W. Bush Jan 16, 2000 Replace 132,000-page Medicare document with senior choice
    Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Get government out of health care & costs will plummet
    Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 Federal govt out of health care
    Bill Bradley Jan 12, 2000 Controlling smoking is key to health care reform
    Alan Keyes Jan 10, 2000 AIDS is a moral crisis based on licentious behavior
    Al Gore Jan 8, 2000 Help seniors by helping Medicare
    Bill Bradley Jan 8, 2000 Covering drugs is the key to reducing health care costs
    Al Gore Jan 5, 2000 The goal of universal health care will take time
    Bill Bradley Jan 5, 2000 Replace Medicaid with competitive system
    Hillary Clinton Jan 1, 2000 Smaller steps to progress on health care
    Pat Buchanan Jan 1, 2000 Self-finance Medicare by self-investing
    Bill Bradley Dec 18, 1999 All Americans should have access to affordable health care
    Alan Keyes Dec 13, 1999 Focus on cost-reductions, not methods of payment
    Alan Keyes Dec 13, 1999 Let market determine health payments, not bureaucrats
    George W. Bush Dec 13, 1999 Keep Medicare in government, but provide flexibility
    George W. Bush Dec 13, 1999 Create Review Board to hear HMO complaints
    John McCain Dec 13, 1999 Matching funds for seniors citizens’ prescription drugs
    John McCain Dec 13, 1999 Expand health insurance to 11 million uninsured children
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Against mandates not related to patient care
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Bush signed Texas’ version of Patient Bill of Rights
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Strengthen Medicare through choice and other options
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Health care reform is key to a “new politics of meaning”
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Universal coverage, cost containment, & managed competition
    Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Proposed Natl Health Board to oversee employee cooperatives
    John McCain Nov 21, 1999 Keep health care promises to aging veterans
    Al Gore Nov 10, 1999 Start with affordable health care for children
    Pat Buchanan Nov 3, 1999 Against national health system & federal takeover
    Pat Buchanan Nov 3, 1999 Supports catastrophic health insurance, privately paid
    Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Fewer union jobs leads to 46 million uninsured
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Patients and doctors should decide who gets what care
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 $146B over 10 years to insure 90% of adults & 100% of kids
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Set aside 15-16% of budget surplus to fix Medicare
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Treat mental health on parity with physical health
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Proposes network of family caregiving support centers
    Bill Bradley Oct 28, 1999 Fund reforms from surplus, medical Internet, & lower costs
    Bill Bradley Oct 28, 1999 Create respite centers for Alzheimer’s patients & caregivers
    Hillary Clinton Oct 14, 1999 Be prepared with defenses against infectious disease
    Al Gore Oct 5, 1999 $110B for Medicare prescriptions & teaching hospitals
    Bill Bradley Oct 5, 1999 $650B over 10 yrs for children’s mandatory health insurance
    Hillary Clinton Sep 14, 1999 Medicare should be strengthened today
    Al Gore Sep 8, 1999 Aims to insure 15 million uninsured
    Ralph Nader Aug 27, 1999 Keep commercialism out of maternity wards
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Prescription rules should be controlled by states, not FDA
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 FDA has caused needless deaths by delaying medications
    Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Doctors & insurers should regulate drugs, not FDA
    Bill Bradley Aug 24, 1999 Universal health care & health insurance coverage
    Ralph Nader Jul 22, 1999 Make medicines affordable in Third World
    John McCain Jul 15, 1999 Address powerlessness when faced with health care crises
    John McCain Jul 15, 1999 “Patient rights” means value human life over dollars
    John McCain Jul 15, 1999 Expand medical savings; community health; & tax deductions
    John McCain Jul 15, 1999 Patient Rights: access; MDs over HMOs; grievance process
    John McCain Jul 15, 1999 Allow paying extra for choice of doctors & care
    John McCain Jul 15, 1999 Full doctor-patient discussion even when it costs HMO
    John McCain Jul 15, 1999 Allow appealing HMO decisions externally & in court
    Ralph Nader Jul 15, 1999 Challenge the monetization of HMOs
    Ralph Nader Jul 15, 1999 HMO review procedures must be independent of HMOs
    Ralph Nader Jul 15, 1999 HMO plan: accountability, doctor-driven, independent review
    George W. Bush Jun 25, 1999 Health insurance for kids from tobacco settlement
    George W. Bush Jun 25, 1999 Choose doctor for pay outside of HMOs
    Al Gore Jun 14, 1999 More restrictions on underage smoking
    Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 Abolish euthanasia; fight “Culture of Death”
    Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 More coverage; doctors in charge of HMOs
    Al Gore May 14, 1999 Focus on prevention to limit costs
    Al Gore May 14, 1999 Patients’ Bill of Rights to ensure quality care
    George W. Bush May 1, 1999 Endorses tax-subsidized medical savings accounts
    George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Supports subsidized Medicare menu with means testing
    Harry Browne Mar 19, 1999 Against tobacco lawsuits funding more health programs
    Alan Keyes Jan 6, 1999 Right to die usurps the Declaration and God.
    Al Gore Nov 19, 1998 No discriminating based on genetic information
    Ralph Nader Nov 16, 1998 Criticizes “sweetheart deal” for big tobacco
    Alan Keyes Jul 24, 1998 Universal health ID’s are a threat to liberty
    George W. Bush Jul 2, 1998 More managed care; more tax incentives; no state guarantees
    George W. Bush Jul 2, 1998 Lower care costs; reform taxes; limit lawsuits
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Supports patient rights; regulate nicotine as a drug
    John McCain Jul 2, 1998 More tax-deductible health costs; limits on malpractice
    Hillary Clinton Jun 4, 1998 Work toward affordable universal health care
    Al Gore Mar 23, 1998 Tobacco is greatest threat to kids’ health
    Alan Keyes Jul 2, 1996 For tax-free medical savings accounts
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Abolish FDA; get govt out of health care
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Medicare has caused higher health costs
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 1992 Health Plan all about coercion, not compassion
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Government can improve health care by getting out of it

    Background on Juvenile Crime
    Columbine
  • On April 21, 1999, two high school students brought numerous guns to Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, and began shooting. Twelve students, one teacher, and the two shooters were killed, and dozens others wounded.
  • Similar shootings have occurred in recent years at schools in Pearl, Mississippi, which left two dead, West Paducah, Kentucky, which left three dead, Jonesboro, Arkansas, which left five dead, Edinboro, Pennsylvania, which left one dead, and Springfield, Oregon, which left two dead.
  • The shootings have prompted a re-examination of the causes of juvenile crime; the candidates' conclusions are found below.
  • Candidates’ responses based on lagging morality, such as posting the Ten Commandments in schools, can be found in the Civil Rights category.
  • Candidates’ calls for changing gun laws can be found in the Gun Control category.
    Juvenile Enforcement
  • Juvenile violent crime arrests for 15- to 17-year-olds doubled in the period 1987-1994, but have been dropping since then.
  • Boot camps are facilities designed to dissuade juvenile criminals from becoming adult criminals. They are considered a “tough on crime” policy, but are also an alternative to trying juveniles as adults.
  • Try as Adults is another “tough on crime” stance; juvenile penalties are generally lighter than for the same crime committed by adults.
    Media Responsibility
  • Video & music labeling: Rather than censor media material, labeling allows parents to limit their children's access, like the G/PG/R/NC17 voluntary movie rating system.
  • Internet Filtering: Rather than censor the Internet, filtering allows parents to restrict their children's access to unsuitable web sites by technological means.

    (click a book cover for a review or other books on Juvenile issues from Amazon.com)

    Headlines on Juvenile Crime
    Alan Keyes Jan 26, 2000 Don’t lower crime age as a result of adult moral failure
    Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 Stricter prosecutions for juveniles
    John McCain Jan 13, 2000 Prosecute youths as adults, but separately; explore sources
    Al Gore Dec 18, 1999 School violence: zero gun tolerance & better parenting
    Al Gore Dec 18, 1999 We need more self-restraint in the media
    Bill Bradley Dec 18, 1999 More gun control to restrict kids’ access
    Bill Bradley Dec 18, 1999 School violence: media responsibility & adult supervision
    Bill Bradley Dec 18, 1999 Gun control leads to safe schools
    Alan Keyes Dec 13, 1999 Violence in schools due to loss of moral heritage
    George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 “Tough-love” in strictly disciplined boot camps
    Harry Browne Nov 21, 1999 Tragic events do not justify new gun laws
    Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Zero tolerance for guns in schools, to end school violence
    George W. Bush Aug 24, 1999 Bush’s Texas is a bad place to be “young and irresponsible”
    John McCain Aug 17, 1999 Guns are a problem, but so are violent web sites & videos
    Hillary Clinton Aug 5, 1999 Boycott violent media and products
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Entire school staff should focus on school safety
    Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Early-warning hotlines for homicidal & suicidal students
    Alan Keyes Jul 2, 1999 Let God into schools to keep Columbine shooters out
    George W. Bush Jun 25, 1999 Arrest for guns in school; track juvenile offenders
    Bill Bradley Jun 18, 1999 Posting Ten Commandments in schools seems unconstitutional
    Bill Bradley Jun 16, 1999 Free parents to raise good kids, rather than blame them
    George W. Bush Jun 14, 1999 For tough juvenile justice laws
    Al Gore Jun 14, 1999 Make schools violence-free and drug-free
    Hillary Clinton Jun 4, 1999 Ban kids’ unsupervised access to guns
    Hillary Clinton Jun 4, 1999 Metal detectors at school are not much of an intrusion
    Hillary Clinton Jun 4, 1999 Society is responsible for alienation that causes violence
    John McCain Jun 4, 1999 Media Responsibility Act requires video & music labeling
    Pat Buchanan May 29, 1999 Columbine shootings due to Hollywood, not guns
    George W. Bush May 25, 1999 Increased penalties to rehabilitate juveniles
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Faith-based crime prevention via clergy outreach
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Curb juvenile crime by tough punishments
    Al Gore May 16, 1999 Tough “Second-chance schools” for kids
    Alan Keyes May 14, 1999 Columbine killers lacked moral development - not gun laws
    John McCain May 10, 1999 Youth Violence Prevention Act restricts guns for kids
    John McCain Apr 30, 1999 Violence in media caused Littleton shootings
    George W. Bush Apr 21, 1999 Filter - or avoid - media that romanticizes violence
    Pat Buchanan Apr 21, 1999 Littleton due to poisoned culture declaring “God is dead”
    George W. Bush Jan 27, 1999 Track gangs; enact automatic sentencing
    George W. Bush Dec 31, 1998 Supports trying minors as adults for violent crimes.
    Hillary Clinton Nov 18, 1998 Keep kids busy from 2PM to 8 PM to avoid trouble
    Harry Browne Jul 13, 1998 Schools were safer before the War on Drugs
    George W. Bush Jul 2, 1998 Prosecute kids as adults; more boot camps
    George W. Bush Apr 6, 1998 Send juvenile criminals to “boot camp”
    Harry Browne May 1, 1996 No funding anti-gang programs; end Drug War to end gangs
    Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Enforcing “responsible entertainment” is censorship
    Bill Bradley Nov 19, 1993 Try teens as adults, but no death penalty

    Background on Kosovo

    History of Yugoslavia

    Yugoslavia was created after WWI, from a federation of Balkan countries. The intention was avoiding further Balkan wars like those which ignited WWI. After WWII, its borders were redrawn with six republics plus two provinces within Serbia. (click on the map below left for an
    enlarged view).

    Sovereignty

    The six Yugoslav republics (see below) have all had history as independent nations. The two provinces within Serbia (Kosovo and Vojvodina) were never independent, with legal status like California within the US. Hence much of the debate on Kosovo centers on 'sovereignty' -- attacking Kosovo can be viewed as an attack on the sovereignty of Serbia while it was involved in a Civil War. Bosnia, on the other hand, had autonomous legal status like Puerto Rico within the US. Bosnia had declared independence from Serbia before the US sent troops there, and hence sovereignty was not an issue.

    Marshal Tito

    Marshal Tito was the Communist leader of Yugoslavia since WWII. He is credited with holding the Yugoslav republics together (by dictatorial force), and after he died in 1980 the republics began to clamor for more autonomy. Further pressure for independence came from the fall of the Soviet empire in 1989.

    Breakup of Yugoslavia

    In 1990, a new Yugoslav Constitution was enacted. Four republics soon declared independence, leaving 'Rump Yugoslavia' as only Serbia plus Montenegro.
      Status of the former Yugoslav republics and provinces:
    1. Slovenia: Declared independence in June 1991; one-week war with Serbia (a 'bloodless' war because Serbia focused on Croatia); Slovenia is now a prospering nation with hopes of joining NATO.
    2. Croatia: Declared independence in June 1991; longer war with Serbia; heavily involved with Bosnia war.
    3. Macedonia: Declared independence in Nov. 1991; avoided war because of arrival of international forces (including US forces, which are still based there). Greece has blocked full international recognition because the name 'Macedonia' is also the name of a Greek province.
    4. Bosnia-Herzegovina: Declared independence in 1992; lengthy war with Serbia and Croatia, with all three countries involved in 'ethnic cleansing.' The war ended with the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. US forces are still stationed in Bosnia, which is partitioned into three ethnic regions (Serb, Bosnian, & Croat).
    5. Montenegro: Still part of Yugoslavia as an autonomous Republic. Montenegrins are ethnically identical to Serbs; they differ only by geography. But in the wake of the Kosovo war, Montenegro may declare independence.
    6. Serbia: Legally, Serbia is just one republic of Yugoslavia. But the Serbs have always been the dominant group in all of Yugoslavia since is formation.
    7. Kosovo: Remains a province within the republic of Serbia. Its population is 3/4 Albanian (refered to as 'ethnic Albanians' to differentiate from residents of the neighboring country of Albania).
    8. Vojvodina: Also remains a province within the republic of Serbia. Its population is 1/2 Hungarian (they border Hungary, and prior to WWII were part of that country).

      Slobodan Milosevic

      Milosevic came to power as Chairman of the Communist Party in 1986. His popularity increased greatly in 1987 after a speech in Kosovo strongly advocating Serbian nationalism (the speech was made on the site of a 14th century battlefield. This is the political basis for Milosevic not granting Kosovo independence). Milosevic was democratically elected President of Serbia in 1989, and elected as President of Yugoslavia in 1997. He was indicted as a war criminal in June 1999, the first time a sitting President has been indicted. His alleged crimes include genocide and ethnic cleansing.

      Religion and Ethnicity

        The major religious divisions in Yugoslavia explain much of the political divisions:
      • Eastern Orthodoxy is the religion of the Serbs, Macedonians, and Montenegrins. Hence Russia (who are also Eastern Orthodox and ethnically Slavic) support the Serbs, and Greece (who consider Macedonians ethnically Greek) identifies with Macedonia.
      • Roman Catholicism is the religion of the Croats, Slovenes, and Hungarians. Hence Croatia and Slovenia are religiously distinct from Serbia even though they are all ethnically Slavic.
      • Islam is the religion of the Bosnians and the Albanians (including those in Kosovo). Hence the country of Bosnia-Herzegovina is all ethnically Slavic but has three distinct religious groups.

      Kosovo

      In 1999, the US and NATO negotiated with Milosevic in Rambouillet, France, attempting to resolve the Kosovo crisis without ethnic cleansing or war. The goal was to be a 'Rambouillet Agreement' fashioned after the Dayton Agreement that ended the war in Bosnia. The peace talks failed, and NATO bombed Serbia and Kosovo from March to June 1999. Milosevic capitulated; the Serbian Army left Kosovo; and NATO, Russian, and UN troops are now stationed there under the 'KFOR' banner.

      Headlines on Kosovo
      Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 US should not be involved in Kosovo at all
      Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 US out of Kosovo
      Pat Buchanan Dec 17, 1999 End sanctions that hurt innocent Serbs
      Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Urged president to bomb Serbians
      Alan Keyes Dec 7, 1999 Respond to facts, not Serb intentions
      John McCain Dec 7, 1999 Kosovo an example of feckless photo-op foreign policy
      John McCain Nov 22, 1999 Fighting was based on polls and photo-ops
      Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Balkans: Let Europe police their own backyard
      Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 We attacked Yugoslav territory without Congress’ approval
      Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Kosovo war unconstitutional
      Pat Buchanan Jun 18, 1999 Kosovo conflict is illegal and unconstitutional
      Hillary Clinton Jun 17, 1999 Kosovo’s unified message: We will not turn away
      Alan Keyes Jun 14, 1999 Kosovo sets precedent for more future intervention
      John McCain Jun 10, 1999 Important to win, important for US to be superpower
      John McCain Jun 6, 1999 Distrust Milosevic, and Verify
      Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Prefers “least-bad peace” patrolled by Europeans & locals
      Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Intervention causes the disaster we sought to avoid
      Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 No vital US interests; no right of US attack
      Alan Keyes Jun 4, 1999 NATO strategy against civilians is terrorism
      Alan Keyes Jun 4, 1999 “Ends justify the means” is the path to evil
      George W. Bush Jun 4, 1999 Be suspicious of agreement until Serbs gone & Kosovars home
      George W. Bush Jun 4, 1999 Timetable for US peacekeepers to hand over to Europeans
      Harry Browne Jun 3, 1999 Feel moral imperative? Do it, but don’t force others to.
      Harry Browne Jun 3, 1999 We bomb for morality; can US get bombed for immorality?
      Harry Browne Jun 3, 1999 If Milosevic is a threat, post a bounty for his death
      Pat Buchanan May 29, 1999 War in Yugoslavia is none of our business
      Harry Browne May 15, 1999 Bombing doesn’t work; US intervention doesn’t work.
      Harry Browne May 15, 1999 Undeclared wars are unconstitutional
      Bill Bradley May 10, 1999 Should have foreseen & prevented Yugoslav actions
      Pat Buchanan May 6, 1999 NATO should not be the air arm of the KLA
      John McCain May 4, 1999 Authorize Clinton to send in ground troops.
      Al Gore May 2, 1999 Serbs committing crimes against humanity.
      John McCain Apr 30, 1999 Supported deployment in Bosnia; supports it in Kosovo
      John McCain Apr 30, 1999 Higher price for security due to earlier idle threats
      Bill Bradley Apr 25, 1999 Against intervention
      Al Gore Apr 21, 1999 Ethnic cleansing means mass murder and we will stop it
      Al Gore Apr 21, 1999 Moral interests apply to all; NATO can act on it here
      Al Gore Apr 21, 1999 Ignoring Milosevic destabilizes Europe & world justice
      Al Gore Apr 21, 1999 Moral interests dictate that we fight Milosevic’s evil
      Al Gore Apr 21, 1999 Bomb until Serb forces withdraw & refugees return.
      Alan Keyes Apr 7, 1999 Kosovo not based on human rights policy nor precedent
      Bill Bradley Mar 24, 1999 Establish exit strategy to avoid quagmire
      Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Under no conditions should US be in former Yugoslavia
      Alan Keyes Nov 28, 1995 Bosnian intervention MUST be approved by Congress

      Background on Principles & Values
      This section cites the candidates’ underlying philosophies, principles for decision-making, and the values that underlie their stances on the issues and their voting records. In practical terms, this section is where the candidates explain their campaign slogans.

      Elsewhere in Issues2000, we have a policy of quoting strictly issues-based material, omitting the political components of each candidates’ speeches. In this category, we relax the rules substantially so that candidates can explain their political philosophy.



      (click a book cover for a review or click for other books on
      Defense or SDI from Amazon.com.)


      Headlines on Principles & Values
      John McCain Feb 24, 2000 Calls himself a “Reagan Republican”
      Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 The president must explain “white skin privilege” to America
      Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Democracy over plutocracy
      Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Counter “democracy gap”: raise expectations in politics
      Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 The DemRep duopoly obstructs citizenship
      Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 New populism: citizen participation over commercialism
      John McCain Feb 20, 2000 Fight clean, fight fair, but keep on fighting
      Ralph Nader Feb 17, 2000 Pushed consumer protection in “Nader’s Raiders”
      Alan Keyes Feb 15, 2000 The real outsider for conservative Republicans
      John McCain Feb 15, 2000 The GOP should be inclusive
      Hillary Clinton Feb 11, 2000 National experience & ability to get along will serve NY
      Hillary Clinton Feb 6, 2000 New to the neighborhood, but not new to NY issues
      Hillary Clinton Feb 6, 2000 End divisional politics
      George W. Bush Feb 3, 2000 Pledges to return honor to office of the Presidency
      John McCain Feb 3, 2000 Calls himself conservative who attracts political center
      Bill Bradley Jan 30, 2000 No nickel-and-diming, no nibbling around the edges
      Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Libertarians lay out goals and let you plan your own life
      John McCain Jan 25, 2000 Vote based on character, not issues
      Alan Keyes Jan 16, 2000 Bring God back into the White House
      John McCain Jan 16, 2000 Foreign policy should not be shaped by photo-ops & polls
      Bill Bradley Jan 13, 2000 Should we take risks? If not now, when? If not us, who?
      Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Priorities: End income tax, drug war, & commercial meddling
      Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 Stick to biblical & constitutional standards
      George W. Bush Jan 6, 2000 Conservative values: Tax cuts; school choice; workfare
      George W. Bush Jan 6, 2000 Jesus is part of my life; but won’t exclude non-Christians
      Al Gore Jan 5, 2000 Criticism with defense of Clinton served the public interest
      Al Gore Jan 5, 2000 Respect Constitution and others when affirming faith
      Al Gore Jan 5, 2000 Policies, not labels, define me
      Al Gore Jan 5, 2000 Avoiding all mistakes mean not trying hard enough
      Bill Bradley Jan 5, 2000 Politics is a means to an end, not the end
      Bill Bradley Jan 5, 2000 Mistakes are learning opportunities, even for a president
      Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 Domestic priorities: schools, health, enviro, & Reinvention
      Al Gore Dec 18, 1999 Tap into America’s soul with meaning, courage & wisdom
      Bill Bradley Dec 18, 1999 Personal faith is private, even for a president
      George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Bush’s conservatism: local solutions within limited govt
      George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Government if necessary, not necessarily government
      George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 “A Charge to Keep,” hymn & painting, inspire Bush
      Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 “Vast right wing conspiracy”
      Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Stands by her man despite “pain in marriage”
      Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Decried 1980s materialism & excesses of corporate America
      Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Hillary’s choice: Co-president or White House wife?
      Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Never left Bill because they were a team
      Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Campaign theme: Transformation of NYC
      Pat Buchanan Dec 2, 1999 Reform Party offers different agenda & real change
      George W. Bush Nov 21, 1999 Children looking at White House should feel proud
      John McCain Nov 9, 1999 Survived as POW by faith to a higher cause
      John McCain Nov 9, 1999 Refused release to hurt Vietnamese & remain loyal to POWs
      Rudy Giuliani Nov 5, 1999 Turned around NYC & made it safe again
      George W. Bush Nov 1, 1999 Pres. should uphold honor & dignity; act independently
      Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 Address moral crisis or lose our liberty
      Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Support Gore because he’ll fight for you
      Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Working to improve things overcomes disillusionment
      Bill Bradley Oct 28, 1999 Themes: Health insurance, racial unity, child poverty
      Bill Bradley Oct 28, 1999 Private sector for 2 years made him ready to lead America
      Pat Buchanan Oct 25, 1999 Leaving GOP elite, to take message to voters
      Al Gore Oct 11, 1999 “Stay and fight!” invokes passion, loyalty, and purpose
      Pat Buchanan Oct 9, 1999 Original “America First” in 1940s to keep US out of WWII
      George W. Bush Oct 8, 1999 Challenges the orthodoxy but is still a devout conservative
      George W. Bush Oct 6, 1999 Focus on human problems, not just economy
      George W. Bush Oct 6, 1999 No Gomorrah in America; no disdain of government
      John McCain Sep 27, 1999 Campaigning to return government to the people
      John McCain Sep 27, 1999 Restore, renew, reform, & reinvigorate government
      John McCain Sep 27, 1999 “New Patriotic Challenge”: stand against cynicism
      Pat Buchanan Sep 23, 1999 A patriot who calls himself a nationalist
      George W. Bush Sep 6, 1999 A “call to conscience” for personal responsibility
      Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Christianity is the basis of our legal system
      Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Accountability to people and God
      Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Welcomes pro-family activists from GOP
      Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 America has forgotten God
      Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Basic principle: Government needs to be smaller
      John McCain Aug 17, 1999 Public officials have failed to set example for society
      Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Search for meaning beyond materialism will guide America
      Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Philosophy: Respect people; deal with big questions
      Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Basketball teamwork is similar to political teamwork
      Harry Browne Jul 31, 1999 Young people are right to be scared of big government
      Al Gore Jul 3, 1999 Practical Idealism: centrist on most issues
      George W. Bush Jul 3, 1999 Bush’s centrism: free trade; private IRAs; no new taxes
      Al Gore Jun 14, 1999 Four core principles of Reinventing Government
      George W. Bush Jun 12, 1999 Government can create an environment for prosperity
      George W. Bush Jun 12, 1999 Match conservative minds with compassionate hearts
      George W. Bush Jun 7, 1999 Oil-town upbringing bred ‘compassionate conservatism’
      Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Traditional morality fights culture war against secularists
      Harry Browne Jun 3, 1999 Morality governs personal behavior, not military action
      George W. Bush May 23, 1999 Governs by outlining ideas & letting Legislature do details
      Bill Bradley May 10, 1999 Stick to ideals & stay above the fray of a “broken” system
      Bill Bradley May 10, 1999 Factory town upbringing permeates campaign imagery
      Bill Bradley Apr 26, 1999 Campaign about trust and neighborliness
      Rudy Giuliani Apr 24, 1999 Love and long term attachment needed to represent NY state
      Al Gore Apr 21, 1999 America’s mission: prove that freedom & diversity work
      George W. Bush Mar 7, 1999 “Compassionate conservatism” allows individual potential
      George W. Bush Mar 7, 1999 Prosperity with a purpose: Peaceful & prosperous future
      Pat Buchanan Mar 2, 1999 Global Economy destroys US industry & US independence
      Pat Buchanan Mar 2, 1999 Return to Constitutionalism from Socialism
      Pat Buchanan Mar 2, 1999 Budget deficit replaced by moral deficit
      Alan Keyes Jan 9, 1999 Core Beliefs Based on ‘Unalienable Rights’
      Alan Keyes Jan 9, 1999 Moral bases come from Christianity via Declaration
      Alan Keyes Jan 9, 1999 Reverence for God is foundation of justice & citizenship
      Al Gore Dec 23, 1998 At impeachment, defends “one of our greatest presidents”
      Alan Keyes Jun 29, 1998 Against the “gay agenda”.
      George W. Bush Apr 6, 1998 Base “responsibility era” on Judeo-Christian values
      Harry Browne Apr 3, 1998 Individual liberty and responsibilty on all issues
      Harry Browne Apr 3, 1998 Fiscally conservative and socially liberal...?
      Harry Browne Nov 1, 1997 Replace the use of political force by reducing govt
      Harry Browne Nov 1, 1997 Shrink govt now; come up with non-govt solutions later
      Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 People at “town meetings” form context for policy
      Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Big reforms are as hard as little reforms, so do big ones
      Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Small town upbringing made him prove himself by winning
      Alan Keyes Jul 2, 1996 #1: Restore the moral foundations of family life
      Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Washington cannot be a source of moral leadership
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Government means use of force instead of persuasion
      Howard Phillips Nov 5, 1993 Unity of purpose based on principle

      Background on School Choice

      School Choice

      ‘School Choice’ generally refers to a school district allowing parents to decide which school within the district to send their kids to. The political issue is whether to allow the choice to include private schools, parochial schools, and home schooling at taxpayer expense. Taxpayer funding of parochial schools potentially violates the Constitutional separation of church and state. Taxpayer funding of private schools is controversial because it subsidizes parents who are currently paying for private schools themselves, and are usually more wealthy than the average public school family.

      Charter Schools

      ‘Charter schools’ are publicly-funded and publicly-controlled schools which are privately run. They are usually required to adhere to fewer district rules than regular public schools.

      Vouchers

      ‘Vouchers’ are a means of implementing school choice -- parents are given a ‘voucher’ by the school district, which entitles them to, say, $4,000 applicable to either public school or private school tuition. The value of the voucher is generally lower than the cost of one year of public education (which averages $5,200), so private schools (where tuition averages $8,500) may require cash payment in addition to the voucher.

      K-12 Education Statistics


      Headlines on School Choice
      Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Revolution in public schools, but his kids in private school
      Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 Allow parents to move to better-performing public schools
      Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 Vouchers gave parents a chance, but system isn’t big enough
      Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Federal involvement in schools doesn’t work
      Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Give parents “total” control over school selection
      Bill Bradley Jan 26, 2000 Supports experimenting, but vouchers are not the answer
      Al Gore Jan 17, 2000 Increase public school aid by 50% instead of vouchers
      Bill Bradley Jan 17, 2000 Voted for voucher experiments; now focus on public schools
      John McCain Jan 16, 2000 Use sugar, oil, and ethanol subsidies to finance vouchers
      Alan Keyes Jan 13, 2000 Pro-voucher; gov’t out of K-12 education
      Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 Privatize failing schools
      Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 Charter Schools create competition
      Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 Voucher program for New York City
      Bill Bradley Jan 4, 2000 Vouchers are not the solution to schools’ problems
      George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Charters encourage innovative methods & provide choices
      Alan Keyes Dec 7, 1999 Money should follow parents’ education choices
      John McCain Dec 7, 1999 Tax breaks for charters - not from public school funds
      John McCain Oct 29, 1999 Vouchers & charters will improve our school system
      George W. Bush Oct 5, 1999 $3 billion for Charter School Fund
      John McCain Sep 27, 1999 Nationwide test of school vouchers
      Al Gore Sep 26, 1999 No experimental vouchers
      Pat Buchanan Sep 24, 1999 Support home schooling but don’t give up on public schools
      George W. Bush Sep 3, 1999 Shift Title I funds to parents for failed schools
      George W. Bush Aug 26, 1999 School decisions by parents, not federal judges
      George W. Bush Aug 26, 1999 Let poor people choose their schools, like rich people do
      John McCain Jul 29, 1999 $5B program for 3-year test of school vouchers
      Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Vouchers will not improve our public schools
      Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Let’s build up our schools-not tear them down
      Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Charter schools provide choice within public system
      John McCain Jun 14, 1999 Tax-funded vouchers for private schools or charter schools
      Pat Buchanan Jun 11, 1999 For vouchers, charter schools, & homeschooling
      Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 Decisions by parents and teachers, not bureaucrats
      John McCain May 24, 1999 Shift policy-making from bureaucrats to parents
      John McCain May 24, 1999 Vouchers needed where teachers fail
      Al Gore May 17, 1999 More choice, more local control, within public schools
      Al Gore May 16, 1999 More public school choice - but not private
      Al Gore May 16, 1999 Shut failing schools; then re-open & turn them around
      Rudy Giuliani Apr 30, 1999 Experiment in NYC with school vouchers
      Al Gore Apr 26, 1999 Vouchers drain cash from public school reforms.
      George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Vouchers a priority; encourage their spread
      Alan Keyes Jan 7, 1999 Value-free public education is brainwashing.
      Alan Keyes Jan 7, 1999 Empower parents against the monopoly of public schools.
      George W. Bush Dec 31, 1998 Supports vouchers, including private or religious schools.
      Hillary Clinton Aug 4, 1998 Charters meet needs of failing public school students
      Hillary Clinton Aug 4, 1998 Vouchers siphon off much-needed resources
      John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Vouchers for any schools; more charter schools
      Howard Phillips May 1, 1998 Children’s education controlled by parents
      Harry Browne Apr 3, 1998 Get government out of education so parents can choose
      George W. Bush Mar 31, 1998 Vouchers tied to “accountability system”
      Al Gore Mar 23, 1998 Against vouchers; build up public schools instead
      Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Repeal taxes so parents can afford any school they choose
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Vouchers better than public schools; no govt is best
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Feds out of education and states out of education
      George W. Bush Feb 7, 1995 “Home rule” with state standards
      Bill Bradley Jul 27, 1994 Voted for vouchers & for school choice, including private

      Background on Social Security

      Social Security Trust Fund

        The Trust Fund is the government's means of saving up for the expected increase in retirement in coming decades. The primary policy question is where to invest the fund, and whether to increase the total fund by adding money from the budget surplus.
      • The Clinton plan is to have the federal government continue to control the investment (which implies investing in Treasury Bills, which means lending to the National Debt).
      • The Congressional plan is to have individually controlled retirement investment accounts (which implies investment in the Stock Market, Bond Market, and Money market)
      • Alternative plans are to have government-controlled investments in the stock market or other private markets.

      Social Security Investment

      Due to the enormous amount of money involved, where and how the Trust Fund is invested will dramatically impact the economy.
       $0.6 trillion      Total amount currently in the Trust Fund   (1999)
       $3.0 trillion      Estimated amount needed by peak year       (2015)
       $2.9 trillion      Expected total budget surplus for years 2000-2009
       $1.8 trillion      Total amount of most recent federal budget (2000)
       $5.6 trillion      Total amount of the federal National Debt  (1998)
      $11.6 trillion      Total market capitalization of the NYSE    (1999)
      

      ‘Lockbox’

    9. The ‘Lockbox Bill’ aims to protect the future Social Security surplus by removing it from the control of federal budget makers.
    10. The vote in Congress was 416-12 in favor of the bill.
    11. It would require a ‘super-majority’ vote on any bill that would add to the budget deficit, which implies borrowing from the Social Security Trust Fund.

      IRAs and other Retirement Accounts

    12. Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) allow saving $2,000 per year tax-free, to be withdrawn beginning between ages 59 and 71.
    13. Keough Plans for self-employed people allow saving $30,000 per year tax-free, to be withdrawn beginning at age 59.
    14. Salary Reduction Simplified Employee Pension Plans (SAR SEPs), allow investing $6,000 per year tax-free in stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or precious metals.
    15. 401(k) company-sponsored retirement plans allow investing $30,000 per year tax-free in any investment vehicle, including real estate and insurance.

      Medicare and Medicaid

    16. Medicare and Medicaid will become insolvent under current estimates by 2015 (1999 budget discussions may push that to 2025).
    17. There were 39 million Medicare beneficiaries in 1998; that number is expected to rise along with Social Security retirement figures.
    18. Senior Drug coverage is currently $24-$44 per month insurance premium to cover $1,000-$2,500 per year in drug costs.
    19. Medicare deductible on tax returns is currently $100 per year; also expected to rise in current negotiations.

      Headlines on Social Security
      Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Pensions controlled b people, not banks or insurers
      Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 Budget surplus doesn’t exist-it’s all the Trust Fund
      John McCain Jan 26, 2000 Trust Fund is a ticking time bomb, set to go of fin 2014
      John McCain Jan 26, 2000 More believe in Elvis than in getting Social Security check
      Alan Keyes Jan 13, 2000 Supports privatization & Lock-box
      George W. Bush Jan 13, 2000 No reduction of benefits for retirees & those near it
      Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 End the government Social Security system
      Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 Keep Congress out of Social Security’s pocket
      John McCain Jan 11, 2000 Option to invest 20% of payroll taxes in private accounts
      George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Give Americans more freedom to manage their social security
      George W. Bush Dec 3, 1999 Keep promise to retirees but consider raising retirement age
      George W. Bush Nov 22, 1999 Consider raising retirement age
      Alan Keyes Nov 21, 1999 Keep our promises on Social Security benefits, guaranteed
      Alan Keyes Nov 21, 1999 Let people who earn their money invest their own money
      Harry Browne Nov 9, 1999 Social Security squanders your retirement money
      Harry Browne Nov 9, 1999 Social Security is a pyramid scheme
      Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Address solvency first, before adding new programs
      Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Option for private investment, with public fall-back
      Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Let people who work past 65 collect benefits
      John McCain Sep 27, 1999 Every dollar off-budget - no ifs, ands, or excuses
      Al Gore Sep 26, 1999 No privatization; no increase in retirement age
      Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Restore Trust Fund while privatizing
      Al Gore Jun 14, 1999 Opposed cutting Medicare; commit more funds instead
      Al Gore Jun 14, 1999 Streamline disability and advocacy processes
      George W. Bush Jun 13, 1999 Backs private accounts for Security contributions
      Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 Put Medicare taxes into personal insurance accounts
      Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 Medicare: no socialized system; no expansion
      Pat Buchanan Jun 12, 1999 Abolish Congressional pensions; put them on Social Security
      John McCain Jun 2, 1999 Disallow using Trust Fund for “emergency” spending
      John McCain Jun 2, 1999 Earnings test penalizes productivity in retirees
      John McCain May 24, 1999 Eliminate the “earnings test” which taxes benefits
      John McCain May 24, 1999 Lock up Trust Fund; devote 62% of budget surplus to it
      Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 Growing economy preserves trust fund best
      Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 Budget surplus is a fiction; separate social security
      Al Gore May 14, 1999 Protect retirement plans while times are good.
      George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Supports subsidized Medicare menu with means testing
      George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Lock-box yes; tax increase no; bipartisanship yes.
      George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Tax-funded private IRA’s under federal guidelines
      Hillary Clinton Feb 17, 1999 Social Security protects families, not just retirees
      Hillary Clinton Feb 17, 1999 All should join the debate now to preserve future solvency
      Ralph Nader Jan 21, 1999 Social insurance is government at its noblest
      Ralph Nader Jan 21, 1999 Social Security privatization replaces certainty with risk
      Ralph Nader Jan 21, 1999 Fears loss of retirement funds in privatized investments
      John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Put surplus into Trust Fund; fulfill promised benefits
      Howard Phillips May 1, 1998 Privatize Social Security & Medicare
      Harry Browne Apr 3, 1998 Take social security away from politicians entirely
      Harry Browne Jun 6, 1997 Shut it down; buy annuities with asset sales.
      Harry Browne Jun 6, 1997 Irresponsibility does not justify Social Security
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 SSI tax has risen from 2% to 15% & will continue to rise
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 One-time pay off of all people over 50, with means testing

      Background on Tax Reform

      Tax Rates

    20. ‘Marginal Tax Rates’ means the amount you pay on each taxable dollar earned above the deductible base.
      (Decreasing the marginal rates would decrease the amount everyone pays, but in general would favor those who pay more tax).
    21. The current marginal tax rates are 15% on the first $42,350 of taxable income, 28% on the next $60,000, and 31%, 36%, & 39.6% above that.
      (Those are the ‘Married Filing Jointly’ rates. The same marginal rates apply to singles, but at different breakpoints).
    22. The ‘Marriage Penalty’ means that two people filing together pay more than if they filed as two singles separately.
    23. The most debated deduction is the mortgage interest deduction (applicable to everyone who owns a house; it makes buying a home more affordable by subsidizing 15% of the mortgage).
    24. The charitable deduction is the basis for discussions of ‘Faith-based organizations’ replacing government agencies (see Welfare section)
    25. The ‘Inheritance Tax’ or ‘Death Tax’ is the basis for discussions of Family Businesses (also see Economy section)
    26. The ‘Capital Gains Tax’ is a separate income tax (with a maximum marginal rate of 28%) which applies when goods that have gone up in value are sold. Lowering the capital gains rate is considered a benefit to wealthier taxpayers.

      Flat Tax & Sales Tax

    27. A ‘Flat Tax’ would replace the current progressive marginal rates with a single ‘flat’ rate (plans vary from 10% to 17%), applied after a deductible base.
    28. Flat Tax plans can achieve lower rates by removing the mortgage interest and charitable deductions.
    29. A ‘National Sales Tax’ would replace the income tax with a consumption tax paid when purchasing anything. Many European countries implement a form of sales tax called ‘VAT’, or Value-Added Tax.

      Tax Surplus

    30. In August, Congress passed a $792 billion tax cut package to be spread over 10 years. President Clinton promised to veto it in September.
    31. From 2000 through 2009, the total budget surplus is now anticipated to be a cumulative $2.93 trillion.

      Amendment XVI to the US Constitution

      The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. (1913)

      Headlines on Tax Reform
      Al Gore Feb 27, 2000 $250B over 10 years in targeted tax cuts
      Bill Bradley Feb 27, 2000 Tax breaks for health insurance, working poor, & child care
      George W. Bush Feb 27, 2000 Its’ the people’s money, not the government’s
      George W. Bush Feb 27, 2000 Biggest tax cuts to those who pay the biggest tax bills
      John McCain Feb 27, 2000 Tax plan: $238B over 5 years; $500B over 10 years
      John McCain Feb 27, 2000 Double child tax credit; add family incentives
      John McCain Feb 27, 2000 “Balanced approach”, and starts a flat tax system
      John McCain Feb 26, 2000 Reagan Republican: simplify taxes; cut waste
      Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Save Social Security, Medicare, and address debt before cuts
      Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 Better health insurance and schools before tax cuts
      Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 More taxpayer input into tax & spending policy
      Hillary Clinton Feb 6, 2000 NY share of federal taxes is too high
      Bill Bradley Jan 30, 2000 Allied with Reagan to pass 1986 tax overhaul
      John McCain Jan 30, 2000 Big money interests fear closing loopholes
      Harry Browne Jan 27, 2000 End income tax & replace it with nothing
      George W. Bush Jan 26, 2000 Use prosperous times to get money out of Washington
      George W. Bush Jan 22, 2000 Keep charitable deduction as incentive for giving
      John McCain Jan 22, 2000 Remove charitable deduction; it only benefits rich
      Alan Keyes Jan 16, 2000 Abolish the income tax and spend money responsibly
      John McCain Jan 16, 2000 Replace employer-provided benefits with a tax cut
      Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Eliminate most fees & taxes, including income tax
      Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 No flat tax nor sales tax; super-majority to raise taxes
      John McCain Jan 11, 2000 Middle-class tax cut: expand 15% tax bracket
      George W. Bush Jan 10, 2000 Cut top tax rate to 33% while cutting lower income taxes too
      George W. Bush Jan 10, 2000 1997 no-tax pledge: judge results, despite breaking pledge
      John McCain Jan 7, 2000 Don’t promise tax cuts from future surpluses we may not have
      George W. Bush Jan 6, 2000 Tax cuts, so help me God
      Bill Bradley Jan 5, 2000 Not every tax cut is good for America
      Ralph Nader Dec 21, 1999 Tax breaks for big business hurt families
      Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 Rules out tax increase in good economic times
      Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Tax reductions of $10.4B through 2003
      Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Supports Tax Reform Task Force to continue reduce ta
      Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Eliminated sales tax on clothing; reduced real estat
      Alan Keyes Dec 7, 1999 Sales tax gives control back to people
      Alan Keyes Dec 7, 1999 Wrong to pay income taxes before basic necessities
      Alan Keyes Dec 7, 1999 Forbes’ plan leaves IRS, and an invasive tax, intact
      Alan Keyes Dec 7, 1999 Forbes’ plan still requires people to beg for tax cuts
      Bill Bradley Dec 7, 1999 Honesty compels avoiding ‘no new taxes’ pledge
      John McCain Dec 7, 1999 1st step to simplify taxes: close special interest loopholes
      George W. Bush Dec 2, 1999 Tax plan, helping poor & rich, gives economy “second wind”
      George W. Bush Dec 1, 1999 Proposes tax cuts of $483B over 5 years
      George W. Bush Dec 1, 1999 Lower tax rates to 10%-25%-33%; end inheritance tax.
      Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Tax imports & transnationals instead of small businesses
      Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 Replace income tax with tariffs & duties
      Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 Income tax is Marxist control of entire economy
      John McCain Oct 29, 1999 Supports flat tax; stop complexity by special interests
      George W. Bush Oct 18, 1999 Don’t balance the budget on the backs of the poor
      John McCain Oct 1, 1999 Keep lump-sum earned income tax credit
      John McCain Sep 27, 1999 Cut marriage tax, inheritance tax, & earnings test
      Hillary Clinton Sep 15, 1999 Just Say No to GOP tax plan
      Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Tariffs should replace taxes
      Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 Veto all IRS funds; repeal 16th Amendment
      Al Gore Aug 30, 1999 $792B tax cut is a “risky tax scheme”
      Harry Browne Aug 26, 1999 Reduce size of govt so income taxes aren’t needed
      Bill Bradley Aug 24, 1999 Veto $792B tax cut; surplus for health coverage & poverty
      Hillary Clinton Aug 6, 1999 GOP tax plan would hurt New York’s students
      Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Would veto proposed $792 billion tax cut
      Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Surplus should pay down debt, & help people in need
      George W. Bush Jul 23, 1999 $8B tax incentives for charitable contributions
      Pat Buchanan Jul 7, 1999 Small Business Bill of Rights: 4% tax over $1 million
      Pat Buchanan Jul 7, 1999 Cut capital gains tax to spur “risk investment”
      Pat Buchanan Jul 7, 1999 Abolish inheritance taxes to keep businesses in the family
      Al Gore Jun 14, 1999 Tax credit for long-term care
      George W. Bush Jun 9, 1999 Read my tax pledge: No new taxes
      Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Flat 16% tax on earnings over $35,000, plus import tariffs
      Pat Buchanan Jun 5, 1999 Dump our tyrannical 7 million-word tax code
      Pat Buchanan May 28, 1999 Budget surplus and import fees go to tax cuts
      Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 Best income tax has low rates and few loopholes
      John McCain Apr 30, 1999 Taxes should be flatter, lower, and simpler
      George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Simplify tax code to stimulate economic growth
      Ralph Nader Apr 14, 1999 Tax breaks to big business unfairly hurt small business
      Al Gore Jan 14, 1999 “Reinvention” cuts taxes while improving services
      Alan Keyes Jan 6, 1999 Against flat tax -- a distraction for abolishing income tax.
      Bill Bradley Dec 15, 1998 Driving force behind the 1986 Tax Reform Act.
      Alan Keyes Apr 17, 1998 Excise taxes allow citizens to control tax rate themselves
      Harry Browne Apr 11, 1998 Flat Tax would require 30% rate and still need IRS
      Harry Browne Apr 11, 1998 Abolish the IRS and the income tax
      Harry Browne Apr 11, 1998 The Great Libertarian Offer: No income tax, but.
      Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Tax loopholes benefit few & distort market
      Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Bradley’s “Fair Tax” was basis for Reagan’s 1986 Tax Reform
      Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Repeal taxes and don’t replace with sales tax nor flat tax
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 10% flat tax OK, if no income tax returns
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 5% sales tax OK, if income tax is eliminated

      Background on Technology

        Computer and Internet Usage

      • 130 million computers are in use in the US, plus another 200 million elsewhere.
      • 75 million Americans use the Internet regularly; plus another 70 million elsewhere.
      • The 'World Wide Web' (with graphics and browsers) began its exponential growth in 1993.
      • 5-10 million web sites are currently available; growing by about 200% per year.

        Internet Issues

      • Internet access in schools: 78% of schools have access; 97% plan to by the year 2000.
      • Internet access in classrooms: 27% of classrooms have access; lower in poor & minority schools.
      • 'E-rate': refers to a $2.4 billion FCC fund, to set up Internet access for schools and libraries.
      • Internet Sales Tax: There is currently a 3-year moratorium on taxing Internet sales while the issue is being studied. Advocates say that lack of a sales tax will hurt local businesses (who are taxed).
      • 'Digital Divide': refers to good Internet access among middle- and upper-income people, with poorer access, if any, among lower-income people, especially in schools. Generally, discussing the 'Digital Divide' means favoring subsidies for better Internet access in urban schools.

        Microsoft Lawsuit

      • Microsoft vs Netscape: The federal Dept. of Justice sued Microsoft under anti-trust law for monopolistic practices against the Netscape browser and other software products. The case began 10/97; testimony ended 6/99; in 11/99, the court found that Microsoft has acted illegally as a monopolist; findings of law expected in Feb. 2000.
      • Microsoft vs Java: Sun Microsystems sued Microsoft for selling a 'polluted' version of its Java program (a common Internet language) that only runs on Microsoft Windows. The case began in Oct. 1997; Sun won a breach of copyright decision 5/99; oral arguments for the appeal begin 6/99.
      • Intel vs FTC: The Federal Trade Commission sued Intel, the manufacturer of the Pentium chip (which with Windows comprises the 'Wintel monopoly'). The case was settled in 3/99; Intel is now prohibited from withholding technical information as a means of compelling license agreements.

        Other Technology Issues

      • Human Genome Project: The entire human genetic sequence is being recorded in a 15-year project begun in 1990.
      • Y2K Bug: (or 'Millenium Bug'): Many computers interpret the year 2000 as 1900. The primary political issue concerns the liability for damages caused by Y2K-based computer problems.
      • Triana Satellite: Proposed NASA satellite (rejected by Congress in 1999) which would broadcast live Internet pictures of the entire earth from high orbit.
      • V-Chip: A TV device (implemented by FCC, 1999) which allows filtering shows via a TV rating system.

      (click a book cover for a review or other books on Technology from Amazon.com)

      Headlines on Technology
      Al Gore Feb 21, 2000 Universal Internet access should be a national priority
      Bill Bradley Feb 21, 2000 Close digital divide with teachers and “infostamp” vouchers
      Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 More free info from govt via computers & airwaves
      George W. Bush Jan 26, 2000 Technology programs are obsolete before they start
      John McCain Jan 26, 2000 Digital Divide requires tax credits for equipment & teachers
      Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Keep government out of the Internet
      Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 The internet doesn’t need govt regulations
      Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 No privacy concerns with DNA-like fingerprinting
      Alan Keyes Jan 7, 2000 Abolish the income tax and eventually tax the Internet
      George W. Bush Jan 7, 2000 Internet may or may not help mom & pop - wait & see
      John McCain Jan 7, 2000 Internet tax ban saved consumers $600M this Xmas
      Bill Bradley Jan 4, 2000 Improve schools to remedy “digital divide”
      Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 In information economy, oil prices rises don’t matter
      Al Gore Dec 20, 1999 Tax-free Internet a catastrophe for local governments
      Bill Bradley Dec 20, 1999 Cautious moratorium on Internet sales taxes
      George W. Bush Dec 20, 1999 Extend Internet sales tax ban; but wary of Main St. losses
      Al Gore Dec 18, 1999 Parental control & media self-restraint, not censorship
      Al Gore Dec 18, 1999 Postpone Mars for domestic spending
      Bill Bradley Dec 18, 1999 Supports research, but no bold step to Mars
      Bill Bradley Dec 16, 1999 Television time is not the exclusive property of the rich
      John McCain Dec 16, 1999 Free TV & radio to candidates as a public interest
      Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Project Smart Schools puts computers in every classr
      John McCain Dec 7, 1999 Make Internet tax moratorium permanent
      Ralph Nader Nov 9, 1999 Ruling against Microsoft bodes well for competition
      Hillary Clinton Nov 8, 1999 We can do more for New York’s biotechnology industry
      Pat Buchanan Nov 7, 1999 Microsoft is over the top; but they’ll survive Justice case
      Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 Publicly fund NASA like we funded the western frontier
      Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 Supports the spiritual component of space exploration
      John McCain Oct 29, 1999 Encourage teachers to learn high tech
      Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Proud of helping Internet; not proud of claiming invention
      John McCain Sep 27, 1999 Technology can hasten end of haves vs. have-nots
      George W. Bush Aug 13, 1999 Make the Internet a duty-free zone
      John McCain Aug 4, 1999 Get more government documents on-line
      John McCain Jul 7, 1999 Telecommuncations Act was an influence-peddling scheme
      Hillary Clinton Jul 5, 1999 Train teachers to use technology in classrooms
      Al Gore Jun 14, 1999 Connect every school to the Internet
      Al Gore Jun 14, 1999 Expand crime-fighting computer technology nationally
      Al Gore Jun 14, 1999 Supports V-Chip and parental controls over TV & Internet
      John McCain Jun 14, 1999 Internet access, with filters, at every school & library
      George W. Bush Jun 7, 1999 No Y2K lawsuits if good-faith effort made
      George W. Bush Jun 4, 1999 Census by head count, if possible
      Al Gore Jun 1, 1999 Triana satellite would inspire environmental consciousness
      Bill Bradley May 19, 1999 Internet connects politicians to voters
      Al Gore May 16, 1999 Investments & tax credits to foster high-tech growth
      Al Gore May 16, 1999 Use high tech to deliver government and social services
      Al Gore May 16, 1999 Genome project yes; genetic discrimination no
      Al Gore May 16, 1999 Electronic Bill of Rights for personal privacy
      George W. Bush May 1, 1999 V-chip OK, but cultural changes are better
      John McCain Apr 14, 1999 No government control over computer encryption
      Harry Browne Jan 11, 1999 Y2K, like Internet, will be solved by free market
      Harry Browne Jan 9, 1999 If Microsoft loses, consumers will pay more
      Ralph Nader Nov 9, 1998 Microsoft is anticompetitive and anticonsumer
      Ralph Nader Nov 9, 1998 Microsoft must be stopped
      Al Gore Mar 23, 1998 Protect kids from Internet smut as part of “e-rate”
      Alan Keyes Sep 6, 1995 V-chip to allow parents to regulate kids’ TV access
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Competition makes high tech work--keep it unregulated
      Bill Bradley Jun 15, 1995 For deregulation; consumer rights; limit media ownership
      Bill Bradley Jun 14, 1995 Voted for V-Chip & telecomm self-censorship
      Howard Phillips Jan 1, 1992 Restrict technology transfer to present & future adversaries

      Background on Welfare & Labor

        Welfare-to-Work

      • The welfare reform bill, signed by President Clinton in 1996, ended the federal entitlement to welfare, imposed strict work requirements on recipients, and set a five-year lifetime limit for aid.
      • In 1995, 88% of poor children received food stamps. By 1998 the figure had dropped to 70%.
      • The welfare load currently stands at about 2 million recipients, which has dropped by about 1/3 since the welfare reform bill was enacted.

        Faith-Based Organizations

      • As welfare decreases, churches and other faith-based organizations (FBOs) pick up the slack.
      • Churches are tax-exempt, and donations to churches and other charities are tax-deductible, so federal activity focuses on tax reform to encourage donations, by increasing deductibility on federal and state income taxes.
      • Other recent Congressional bills focus on removing restrictions on religious organizations' activities, so that churches can bid on government block grants for performing welfare services.
      • The lessening of restrictions on separation of church and state for this purpose is known as Charitable Choice.

        Labor Issues

      • Total union membership stands at about 16 million workers, or 14% of the workforce.
      • Union membership has been falling steadily since 1958, when it stood at 35% of the workforce.
      • The minimum wage is currently $5.15. Increasing it requires an act of Congress. Some candidates want to increase it now, and automatically increase it to keep up with inflation (known as "indexing").

      Foreign trade and import regulations are covered on the Free Trade page.
      Corporate welfare issues are covered on the Government Reform page.
      Earned-income Tax Credits are covered on the Tax Reform page.


      (click a book cover for a review or click for other books on Welfare or Labor from Amazon.com.)

      Headlines on Welfare & Labor
      Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Limit executive salaries & perks
      Ralph Nader Feb 21, 2000 Big business lobbying subordinates democracy
      Pat Buchanan Feb 3, 2000 Agrees with union stance on trade
      Al Gore Jan 26, 2000 7M people off welfare: reform has worked
      Bill Bradley Jan 26, 2000 1M kids lost health insurance:’96 welfare reform didn’t work
      Bill Bradley Jan 23, 2000 Opposed 1996 Welfare Reform; now “wait & see” how it’s used
      George W. Bush Jan 22, 2000 Remove tax “tollbooths” for poor single moms
      George W. Bush Jan 22, 2000 “No-strings” vouchers for religious groups to do charity
      Bill Bradley Jan 13, 2000 Welfare is down, but deep poverty is up
      Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 End unemployment programs; feds out of employment biz
      Harry Browne Jan 13, 2000 Religious & community-based charities should handle welfare
      Howard Phillips Jan 13, 2000 Federally subsidized welfare should be ended
      John McCain Jan 13, 2000 Supports block grants, welfare-to-work, state control
      John McCain Jan 13, 2000 Anti-poverty shared by gov’t & faith-based orgs
      Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 Work is a good thing
      Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 Welfare offices as job centers
      Rudy Giuliani Jan 13, 2000 The homeless need special attention: reach out & help
      Hillary Clinton Jan 12, 2000 Equal opportunity will bridge the digital divide
      Hillary Clinton Jan 1, 2000 Working should mean no poverty
      Pat Buchanan Jan 1, 2000 Welfare is a state and local responsibility
      Pat Buchanan Jan 1, 2000 No minimum-wage increase
      Bill Bradley Dec 31, 1999 Strengthen unionization laws & defend right-to-organize
      George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Supports low-income heating oil assistance program
      George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Work and responsibility to replace welfare
      George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Too much government fosters dependency
      George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Religious charities deserve government support
      George W. Bush Dec 9, 1999 Government should not block faith-based programs
      Hillary Clinton Dec 9, 1999 Community involvement helps, but only in short term
      Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 Change welfare offices into job centers; employed 45
      Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 305,000 jobs created during Rudy’s tenure
      Rudy Giuliani Dec 9, 1999 460,000 moved off welfare rolls during Rudy’s tenure
      Hillary Clinton Dec 2, 1999 Don’t criminalize the homeless
      Rudy Giuliani Dec 2, 1999 Do whatever it takes to get the homeless off the streets
      Pat Buchanan Nov 2, 1999 Offset minimum wage increase with small business tax cuts
      Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 Volunteer for community service; not via government funding
      Alan Keyes Oct 29, 1999 Shift welfare from government to the faith sector
      Al Gore Oct 28, 1999 Expand Family and Medical Leave to balance work & family
      Hillary Clinton Oct 24, 1999 The working poor deserve a living wage
      Al Gore Oct 17, 1999 Task force to study industrial needs
      Al Gore Oct 11, 1999 Proposes sweeping Federal programs, $Billions, for needy
      George W. Bush Oct 5, 1999 Churches provide “armies of compassion” to help the poor
      Hillary Clinton Sep 28, 1999 America can afford to raise the minimum wage
      Pat Buchanan Sep 20, 1999 Corporations are “amoral behemoths”
      Howard Phillips Sep 4, 1999 End welfare; family income doubles when fed gov’t shrinks
      Bill Bradley Aug 24, 1999 Raise minimum wage; more unions; low-income tax cuts
      Al Gore Aug 18, 1999 Add $1 to minimum wage; add earned-income credits
      Bill Bradley Aug 18, 1999 Supports unions for home-health & day-care workers
      Ralph Nader Aug 17, 1999 Student pressure can help oppressed textile workers abroad
      George W. Bush Aug 11, 1999 Look first to faith-based organizations
      Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Bad ideas: block grants; 5-year cutoff.
      Bill Bradley Aug 1, 1999 Good ideas: federal commitment, address single-parenting
      George W. Bush Jun 12, 1999 Religious groups compete for state service contracts
      Al Gore May 24, 1999 Supports volunteerism thru faith-based organizations
      Al Gore May 24, 1999 Corporations should match donations to faith-based orgs
      Al Gore May 24, 1999 “Charitable Choice:” Fed funds for church-based welfare
      Al Gore May 24, 1999 Faith-based organizations replace govt programs
      Al Gore May 16, 1999 Invest in urban redevelopment and “Empowerment Zones”
      Al Gore May 14, 1999 Injuries can be reduced by workers self-identifying hazards.
      George W. Bush Apr 25, 1999 Invigorate “a Civil Society” to protect vulnerable citizens
      Bill Bradley Apr 20, 1999 Welfare should not require mothers to work.
      John McCain Feb 25, 1999 List unoccupied HUD-owned homes, & give them away
      Al Gore Jan 14, 1999 Set goals & provide tools to reach goals locally
      Alan Keyes Jan 7, 1999 Disintegration of the family causes social ills
      George W. Bush Dec 31, 1998 Help people become independent of welfare.
      John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Use tax code to address unemployment & working conditions
      John McCain Jul 2, 1998 More housing assistance; tax breaks against homelessness
      John McCain Jul 2, 1998 Pro-block grants; pro-welfare-to-work
      Hillary Clinton Feb 3, 1997 Microcredit is an invaluable tool in alleviating poverty.
      Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Export unionism abroad
      Bill Bradley Jan 8, 1997 Cut poverty to help cities; not welfare or aff. action
      Harry Browne May 1, 1996 End welfare completely; no entitlements to others’ earnings
      Harry Browne May 1, 1996 War on Poverty & rent control cause poverty & homelessness
      Harry Browne May 1, 1996 Supports enterprise zones; eliminate govt regulations
      Harry Browne May 1, 1996 End welfare; return to private compassion & charity
      Bill Bradley Sep 21, 1995 Against welfare block grants to states
      Bill Bradley Sep 21, 1995 Enlist civil institutions & churches for welfare reform
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Community-based welfare ensured oversight & honesty
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 Welfare perverts natural incentives & hence destroys lives
      Harry Browne Jul 2, 1995 8-month transition, then end all welfare checks

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